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High-Tech Glossary



With our Advance Search option, you can search by name, location, industry and technology sectors. If you need to zero in on a specific buzzword, keyword or tag, IVC can help make your search easy and efficient. If you’re searching for “Cloud Computing” for example, you’ll search under “Internet” or "IT & Enterprise Software".  IVC gives you the precise definition of technology keywords throughout our database. Use the Advanced Search engine's key word search for easy and efficient searches and results.






Cleantech, Communications, Internet, IT & Enterprise Software, Life Sciences, Semiconductors, Miscellaneous Technologies.

Sector:  Cleantech

Short for Clean Technology, commonly used for products, services and processes designed to reduce or eliminate negative ecological impact and improve the productive and responsible use of natural resources. In this sector you will find companies developing eco-friendly technologies, technologies promoting efficiency and economy in the use of resources, recycling technologies and recyclable materials and technologies for the prevention and treatment of pollution.


Eco, Recycling, Waste, Treatment, Conservation, Purification, Control, Clean, Aqua, Agro, Agri, Farm, Recover, Pollution, Emission, GHG, Air, Quality



Agritech, Agrotech or Agro Technology relate to applied technologies developed by the cooperation of researchers, farmers and agriculture-related industries. These include farming technologies dealing with efficient farming, agricultural equipment, farm-waste management, produce and livestock handling, innovative agricultural methods and pest control. Agrobiotech related technologies, pertaining to organic farming, propagation, genetic engineering and nutrients is a subset of Agrotech, where biological research and techniques are at the core of the technology developed. Included are companies dealing with biological pesticides and fungicides, growth stimulators for crops, tissue cultures and genetic engineering of crops and seeds, including technologies in the field of medical Cannabis. Also relevant are companies dealing in aquaculture and algaculture based-technologies and some companies developing nutritional or food supplements based on biological resources.


Refers to technologies that promote the use of alternative and renewable energy sources (wind, solar, geothermal, hydro/marine and biofuels), energy storage technologies and devices (fuel cells, advanced batteries and hybrid systems), as well as technologies promoting efficient and economic uses of energy (for lighting, climate controlled environments, conversion etc.) and technologies addressing the needs of the energy utilities and infrastructures sectors.


This subsector refers in generals to a myriad of eco-friendly technologies and processes including technologies for the treatment of solid waste and recycling, various eco-monitoring technologies and emission control, and technologies for pollution prevention or reduction.


This term is used to refer to technologies for the production of advanced chemical and bio materials, as well as technologies promoting the economical use of raw materials and recycled or recovered materials.
Please Note: Nano materials will be included under this category only if developed by a company specializing in advanced materials. Other Nano tech materials will be found under Miscellaneous Technologies/ Nanotechnology.

Water Technologies

A special category is dedicated to water-related technologies including water treatment & purification (desalination, filtration, UV treatment and wastewater treatment), water conservation and efficiency (water-efficient products, leakage control, and low-evaporation reservoirs), water infrastructures and supply (flow control, measurement & analysis, extreme conditions supply and water security & pollution prevention) and irrigation (despite some categorizations that view irrigation as agro technology).


Climate Tech - Tag

Climate technology are any technologies that explicitly work on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, including renewable energies such as wind energy, solar power, and hydropower, or address the impacts of any form of climate change. This can also address companies or individuals trying to adapt to the impacts of climate change, which leads the true definition to include not only prevention but also the adaptation and mitigation of the adverse effects of climate change.  

The most popular categories in climate tech are: 

Mobility & Transport ; Food, Agritech & Water ; Energy & Power ; Industry ; Construction ; Nature & Carbon Tech 



Sector:  Communications

The Communications sector includes technologies that are targeted at the private and public telecommunications markets. It may be easier to define as what it does NOT include, such as Internet technologies, communications-related semiconductors and new media – all to be found under different sectors in the database. The technologies that ARE included are mainly related to communications infrastructures on the one hand and specific applications and devices on the other.




FTTx, xDSL, CATV, IPTV, MPEG, Router, Switch, Cable, LAN, WAN, WLAN, Wi-Fi, 802.11, 802.16, DSL, SOHO, WiFi, WiMax, LTE, OFDM, Ethernet, Radio, TV, Telecom, Telco, WLAN, GSM, TDMA, CDMA, VAS, Antenna, Wireless, Cellular, PDA, Operator, Modem, IP, RF, Telephony, Phone, Television, Carrier, ITU, SIP, Protocol, GPS, SDH, SONET, Fiber, PON.




Broadband Access

An access network is that part of a communications network which connects subscribers, mostly homes and businesses, to their immediate service provider (also referred to as The Last Mile). It is contrasted with the core network, which is the central part of the telecom network. Relevant technologies which enable the access network a wider bandwidth are: xDSL, FTTx (Fiber-To-The-X), PON (Passive Optical Network), BWA (Broadband Wireless Access).




Dedicated to Television, Video and Audio Broadcasting Technologies. Amongst them are CATV (Cable TV - a system of providing television to consumers via RF signals transmitted to televisions through fixed optical fibers or coaxial cables), IPTV (Internet Protocol Television - a system where a digital television service is delivered using Internet Protocol), ITV (Internet television - a television distributed through the Internet). Other relevant keywords: HDTV, VOD, Video and Audio Compression (MPEG), streaming and various satellite technologies.



Enterprise Networking

An enterprise network connects all the isolated departmental or workgroup networks into an intra-company network, with the potential for allowing all computer users in a company to access any data or computing resource. It provides interoperability among autonomous and heterogeneous systems, integration and management of disparate networks. The enterprise network has the eventual goal of reducing the number of communication protocols in use. Common technologies: LAN, WLAN, VPN, Ethernet.



Home Networking

Home network is defined as two or more computers interconnected to form a local area network (LAN) within the home (wired or wireless). It allows computer owners to interconnect multiple computers so that each can share files, programs, printers, other peripheral devices, and Internet access with other computers, reducing the need for redundant equipment. The advanced home network provides home automation, i.e. controls for the home ambient environment, security systems, household appliances etc. This sub-sector also includes SOHO (Small Office/Home Office) Networks.


Mobile Applications

Refers mostly to applications which are developed for Mobile phones and smartphones. Companies in this sub-sector engage mostly in the development of applications related to one or more of the following: Entertainment, Gaming, Advertisement, M-Commerce, LBS, Mobile web. Applications developed by companies in this sub-sector often use software technologies such as Symbian, BREW, Java, J2ME, and Linux.


Mobile Infrastructure

Includes companies which develop components (such as antennas, base stations, amplifiers etc.) and technologies which conduct the cellular network infrastructure. Furthermore, it contains companies which develop innovative mobile handsets. Relevant keywords: GSM, CDMA, Wimax, LTE, OFDM, 3G, 4G, HSPA.


NGN & Convergence

Next-Generation Network (NGN) is the term given to describe a telecommunications packet-based network that handles multiple types of traffic (such as voice, data and multimedia). It is the convergence of service provider networks that includes the public switched telephone network (PSTN), the data network (the Internet), and, in some instances, the wireless network as well. This sub-sector also includes Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) – the ability to provide fixed and mobile services with a single phone or personal device, which could switch between networks ad hoc.


Optical Networking

Dedicated to networking technologies that rely on optical transmission of digital data as light pulses using fiber optic communications. Optical networks are high-capacity telecommunications networks based on optical technologies and components that provide routing, grooming, and restoration at the wavelength level as well as wavelength-based services.

Companies included in this sub-sector engage in the development of technologies such as lasers, WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing), SDH/SONET (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy/Synchronous optical networking) and products such as fiber-optic cables, amplifiers and optical switches.

Please note that technologies such as PON and FTTx can be founded under the "Broadband Access" sub-sector.


Telecom Applications

Telecom applications refer mostly to software either embedded into a system or separately installed on a main computer, for the control, diagnostics and performance analyses of all telecom (mainly networking) hardware. The relevant applications provide different services, such as Network or traffic Management and Optimization, QoS (Quality of Service). OSS/BSS (Operations Support Systems / Business Support Systems), Billing, Roaming, CRM (Customer Relationship Management) and other Value Added Services (VAS). Main users of telecom applications are ISPs (Internet Service Providers), telecom carriers and service providers.


VoIP & IP Telephony

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over the Internet or other packet-switched networks. IP telephony describes telephony devices that use IP as the native transport for voice and call signalling. VoIP & IP Telephony are important for Computer telephony integration (CTI), a technology that allows interactions on a telephone and a computer to be integrated or coordinated. Other technological keywords might be H.323 - a set of standards from the ITU-T, which defines a set of protocols to provide audio and visual communication over an IP network, and SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).


Wireless Applications

Applications developed for wireless networks or PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant). Common usages of these applications are: business - rugged PDAs (EDA - Enterprise Digital Assistants) used for Mobile Workforce and Fleet Management; supply chain management or facilities maintenance and management such as remote monitoring and Telemetry. RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) applications, Navigation and LBS (Location Based Services) combining GPS. Other relevant wireless technologies are Wi-Fi and Wlan (802.11).


Wireless Infrastructure

Refers to telecommunications networks where interconnections between nodes are implemented without the use of wires. Relevant technologies include WLAN, Wi-Fi, WiMAX (802.16), RF, Microwave and Bluetooth. This subsector includes defense and military wireless networks and equipment as well.



Sector:  Internet

The Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections and other networking systems. The World Wide Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is merely a service accessible via the Internet. The sector includes mostly companies developing software applications and services that are primarily used over the Internet, as well as technologies for the use of Internet Service Providers (ISP) and Internet users.

Please Note that the basic communications infrastructures (hardware mostly) that create what is known as The Internet are to be found under the Communications sector, and the Networking, Optical Networking and Wireless Infrastructures sub-sectors in particular.


ISP, Web 2.0, EDI, P2P, Search Engine, Semantic Web, SN (Social Network), Online, HTML, XML, JavaScrip, Ajax, .NET, Widget, Server, Client, UI, GUI, Flash, PHP, ASP, Browser, e-mail, Website, SaaS (Software as a Service)



Online Advertising

This sub sector includes tools and technologies for online marketing and advertising. Among these are marketing analytics and consumer research tools for advertisers and site owners, offering the basis for contextual or behavioral advertising, online advertising tools such as video-embedded-advertising, banners and traffic generating technologies, as well as other forms of online marketing formats.

Internet Applications

Internet Applications refer to special software applications dedicated solely for Internet users and publishers. These include web user applications such as online messaging, email or browser add-ons (like RSS aggregators), and website publisher applications such as site building and design tools, traffic analytics, and so on.

Please note: this sub sector does not include intra or Internet based enterprise tools or software. These can be found under the IT & Enterprise Software sector.

Content Management

Content Management refers mainly to companies developing unique content, to be consumed by either Web or cellular surfers. Not every website offering content would be considered as a “Content Management Company”, a term used to refer to companies developing technologies that are the growth-engines at the base of a content-carrying Website. It may also be used to refer to companies offering user generated content (UGC), blogs, wikis, knowledge sharing, webcasts etc.

Content Delivery Platforms

This sub sector includes companies offering the technology and means for content-to-users syndication, rather than the generation or storage of the content itself. Companies found under this sub-sector develop products for file/media sharing and distribution such as P2P (Peer-to-Peer) applications; Content coding or syndication protocols such as Javascript, Flash or Ajax; Internet TV through online streaming and webcasting, and so on.


Electronic (e) commerce refers generally to web sites dedicated for commerce via the Internet but also the complete set of processes that support commercial business activities on a network. However, not every online shop is relevant to the purposes of this database, but rather the companies developing the technologies behind the online shelves such as electronic money transfers, billing, shopping comparison and recommendation engines, supply chain management, e-marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), automated inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems.


E-Learning includes companies offering platforms and content (including digital media formats), which enable web users to educate themselves on different subjects without human interaction and tutoring. E-Learning sites include those offering materials in academic fields (student material) and those offering general knowledge and education, such as cooking or stock trading.

Online Entertainment

Online Entertainment refers to websites offering recreational content, such as internet single and multiplayer games, gambling and gaming sites, music and media files by podcasting, video streaming or VOD (Video On Demand), etc.

Internet Infrastructure

Internet Infrastructure relates to technologies addressing consumers aside from private end-users, and may be used by ISPs, ASPs, Internet content providers, and Website owners. These can include – but are not limited to – Internet server-software, messaging protocols, Web browsers and e-mail programs. Web 2.0 related software may also include information storage, creation and dissemination capabilities and hosting services that go beyond the infrastructures immediately available to users.

Search Engines

Search Engines refers to technologies enabling the search of information by internet users. Included are commonly used search engines, crawlers, meta-search tools and aggregators. Significant importance in this view is given to Semantic web technologies, allowing search engines to deliver more accurate and relevant results for users, based on computer readable metadata assigned to common internet content. Semantic web is considered as ushering the next generation of internet development, Web 3.0.

Social Networks

A Social Network is a map of relationships between individuals, ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds. Web-based social networks allow users to connect with people with similar fields of interest, such as sports, dating, work, etc., by providing a collection of various ways for users to find each other and interact, such as chat, messaging, email, video, voice chat, file sharing, blogging, discussion groups, and so on. This sub sector includes social networking sites, as well as companies offering specialty applications for such sites.


IT & Enterprise Software

Sector:  IT & Enterprise Software

This sector groups together various software sub-sectors, emphasizing the aspect of Information Technology (IT) systems for the Enterprise market. Companies developing software products for enterprises and for business end-users can be found here, as well as some companies developing software for the home market, including various software components for use in PCs – either by an individual end user, or by a business end-user. It should be noted however that the sector does not encompass all companies where software is the core technology, since companies with software targeted at specific market niches are sometimes more relevant for other Sectors. Such companies may be found under Internet, Life Sciences/Healthcare IT, Communications/Telecom Applications and Semiconductors/Manufacturing Equipment & EDA. Also, embedded software technologies and products are more likely to be found by the products’ target market or function, in Cleantech, Communications, Semiconductors, Life Sciences and Miscellaneous Technologies.


CAD, CAM, ERP, CRM, BI, Cloud, Grid


Business Analytics

Analytics are defined as the extensive use of data, statistical and quantitative analysis, explanatory and predictive modeling, and fact-based decision-making. Business Analytics is used to describe specific enterprise software that gathers and interprets data in order to make better business decisions and to optimize business processes. In some cases the decision making process is automated. Analytics (in addition to data access and reporting) represents a subset of business intelligence (BI) software. Companies developing relevant technologies such as business intelligence and financial software are included in this sub-sector.

Design & Development Tools

Mostly refers to a set of software tools for creating other IT products, like software development tools or software used for analysis and quality assurance in the programming of other software systems. It may also refer to software tools used in the design of non-software products and automated manufacturing systems (CAD, CAM).

Enterprise Applications

Any set of software written for functions performed by an enterprise, from management down to production. These include ERP systems and ERP components such as manufacturing, supply chain management, financials, CRM, human resources, logistics and knowledge management. Also relevant are systems and services offered by the enterprises to internal users, using Intranet or Internet, sometimes referred to as Enterprise 2.0, for making use of concepts originally designed by Web 2.0 companies.

Enterprise Infrastructure

This term is used to define IT system infrastructures on the enterprise level such as servers, storage, network management systems, data warehouses and GRID systems. They are generally the software components managing the enterprise network of computers, linking the hardware and software used by the company into a seamless system.

Miscellaneous Software

Applies to software technologies or products not relevant to any of the other sub-sectors including GIS, publishing software, logistics, educational software, graphic software and more.


Security software products either embedded in the computer or available as a software package aimed at protecting computers from viruses, hackers and unauthorized access to data stored in these computers. These include anti-virus software, firewalls, access authorization systems, encryption coders and de-coders and intrusion-detection systems. Also included in this Sub-Sector are non-software security and homeland security technologies.


Sector:  Life Sciences

Life Sciences is a general term used to refer to biological technologies, medical technologies and healthcare-related technologies. Companies developing products for the healthcare market can be found in this sector, along with companies performing biological and genetic research, and companies developing technologies, tools and materials used in such research.



Biotechnology companies use biology to create products based on technological developments involving living systems and organisms. Bioinformatics, biologicals, industrial life science, diagnostics and therapeutics companies, with biological research at core are included.

The terms bioinformatics and computational biology are often used interchangeably. However bioinformatics more properly refers to the creation and advancement of algorithms, computational and statistical techniques, and theory to solve formal and practical problems inspired from the management and analysis of biological data. Relevant research in the field include sequence alignment, gene finding, genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, prediction of gene expression and protein-protein interactions, and the modeling of evolution. However, applied research usually focuses on DNA sequencing, and the study of gene regulation using data from microarrays or mass spectrometry.

Biologics or Biological science classifies and describes the various forms of organisms, how organisms function, how species come into existence, and interact with each other and with the environment. The science of biology as a whole includes such fields as botany, zoology, entomology, ecology, evolution and more. However, in the context of applied research and development, the term is generally used to refer mostly to companies active in the fields of microbiology, cellular biology and genetics.

Diagnostics using a biochemical process for medical diagnosis - the process of identifying a medical condition or disease by its signs, symptoms, and from the results of various procedures such as blood or urine tests. Included in this sub-sector are technologies specifically targeted at the diagnosis of a physical situation or a disease such as biopsies and various biochemical tests.

Industrial - in the case of Life Sciences this term is used to refer to industrial and consumer goods manufactured holly or in part from renewable biomass (plant based resources) applied to produce lubricants, animal feed, polymers, solvents, emulsifiers as well as natural fiber composite materials.

Therapeutics is the field of the various remedies that can be used to treat disease and promote health. The drug companies that use biological technologies and products in the process of pharmaceutical development belong to biotechnology field.

Digital Health

Digital health uses digital technologies to promote health, healthcare, living, and patient treatment to enhance the efficiency of healthcare delivery turning medicine more personalized and precise.

Health information technology is any software used by healthcare services which allows comprehensive management of medical information and its secure exchange between healthcare consumers and providers. This includes local systems used by hospitals or healthcare providers, as well as vertical systems used by HMOs and care providers to exchange information about patients and clients.

Telemedicine refers to any medical situation where a patient and healthcare provider (or even two healthcare providers) communicate in real time via telephone, teleconference or satellite. These include such scenarios as medical consultation via phone or video-conferencing, patient monitoring using tele-otoscopes, tele-stethoscopes and halters, and even robotic surgery in remote or hard-to-access locations, including space.

Medical Devices

This term is used to refer to an instrument, apparatus, appliance or other article, used on human beings for the diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment or alleviation of disease, injury or handicap. It is also used for items with medical purposes such as investigation, replacement or modification of the anatomy (like replacement joints) or of a physiological process (like heart defibrillators and stents). Medical devices may be as simple as a plastic syringe or as complex as an MRI system or a robotic surgical arm. Complex medical device systems may or may not include embedded software and may be used externally (ultrasound), internally (endoscope) or both (hearing aids). Due to the width of this sector, it is recommended to use medical or technical key words when searching a medical devices company.

Diagnostics is used to refer to a device used for medical diagnosis - the process of identifying a medical condition or disease by its signs, symptoms, and from the results of various procedures such as blood or urine tests. Included in this sub-sector are technologies specifically targeted at the diagnosis of a physical situation or a disease such as EKG, EEG, medical imaging.


Pharmaceutical companies research, develop, and market medicines made primarily from artificial sources, using chemical materials. It is the field of the various remedies that can be used to treat disease and promote health. Drug companies of all kinds, including generics and medical Cannabis development are included in this sub-sector.

Life Science Product development Terms

Phases in Life Science Product development consist of discovery, followed by pre-clinical trials (3-6 years on average) and three Clinical Trial Phases (6-7 years on average), which lead to regulatory approval certification. Clinical trial phases are based on human volunteer participation and progress by number of participants:

Phase I – Purpose: Safety and dosage tested on 20-100 participants

Phase II – Purpose: Efficacy and side effects tested on several hundred participants

Phase III – Purpose: Efficacy and monitoring of adverse reactions tested on up to several thousand participants

FDA Approved - a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within USA provided by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA), a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. 

CE Approved -  a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA).[1] The CE marking is also found on products sold outside the EEA that are manufactured in, or designed to be sold in, the EEA.


Sector:  Semiconductors

Semiconductors devices are components that provide the memory, logic and intelligence functions in electronic systems. In this sector there are companies that develop semiconductors for various industries (fabless companies), manufacturer of chips (fabrication companies), develop the equipment for manufacturing the chips and develop software for the developers of the chips.


ICs, chipsets, SoC (System-on-Chip), ASSP, ASIC, SIP (Semiconductor Intellectual property), DSP (Digital Signal Processor), FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), RFID, metrology, wafer, lithography, dicing, doping, dopants.



Wireless Communication

Companies that develop semiconductor devices for the wireless communication industry (GSM, WiMAX, WLAN, Wi-Fi, WPAN), such as cellular handsets, notebook computers and Navigation Devices.

Wireline Communication & Home Networking

Companies that develop semiconductor devices for the wireline communication industry (such as Telephone, cable TV and ADSL) and companies that develop the devices that distribute high speed IP data throughout the home over existing wires (home networking).

Network Processors

Companies that develop semiconductor devices for network processors such as routers and switches.

Video, Image & Audio Processors

Companies that develop semiconductor devices for video, image and audio component – processors and sensors - that are in use in many applications such as entertainment products, homeland security systems, automotive products and communication companies.

Manufacturing Equipment & EDA

Companies that develop the equipment for the manufacturing process of chips such as lithography, dicing and metrology (Manufacturing Equipment) and companies that create the designing tools for developing semiconductors devices (Electronic Design Automation - EDA Tools).

Fabrication & Testing

Companies that manufacture chips (Fabrication Companies) and companies that develop processes that inspect semiconductor device performance (Testing).


Companies that develop semiconductor devices for memory and storage solutions such as flash memory cards and USB drives.

Processors & RFID

Companies that develop semiconductor devices that process data and control the execution of program instructions in computers and electronic devices (Processors), and companies that develop RFID cards – an identification system that can read or write data content using a specified radio frequency (RFID) – used for product tagging and logistics.

Security Semiconductors

Companies that develop semiconductor devices that control security-related processes such as: authentication, encryption/decryption, secure boot, copy protection and digital rights management (DRM).

Miscellaneous Semiconductors

Companies that develop semiconductor devices for multiple sub sectors, or companies that develop products that are not included in the above sub sectors such as power, DSP and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).


Miscellaneous Technologies

Sector:  Miscellaneous Technologies

Other technologies not specified in Sectors above. These include: defense and homeland security technologies, hardware, industrial technologies, nanotechnologies and various other technologies that are not better described by one of our more defines sectors and sub sectors.



The Defense sub sector if dedicated to companies which develop military equipment and systems for all fields - navy, air and ground forces. It also includes companies developing technologies in fields such as robotics, rugged computers and electronic warfare (EW). The technologies developed by companies in this sub sector are mostly used by military units, armed forces and law enforcement agencies.


Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes programs and orders within the hardware. Hardware not only refers to personal computers or servers, but rather to any electronic device or component embedded in advanced systems such as automobiles, microwave ovens, electrocardiograph machines, compact disc players, and other devices. Other examples include Image, video and audio output devices (monitors, displays, stereos, speakers, headsets etc.), and computer peripherals like printers, keyboards, scanners and mouse devices.

Industrial Technologies

Industrial Technology includes wide-ranging subject matter and could be viewed as an amalgamation of industrial engineering. This sector includes companies developing technologies and products for various industrial markets such as electrical, engineering, electromechanical and mechanical equipment. Examples include digital printing equipment, electric generators and transformers, automotive technologies, robotics and more. A manufacturer involved in technologies that are a mix of various other sectors also falls under this category. The sector is also often used to refer to heavy industry and related technologies.


Nanoscale (one billionth of a meter) materials offer unique and commercially useful electrical, optical and mechanical properties due to their size, shape, and composition. This opens up new possibilities for applications in aerospace, automotive, biomedical, microelectronics, semiconductors, pharmaceutical, anti-friction coatings, photocatalysts, energy storage and other fields. Nanotechnologies today lies in the realm between the possible now (nano chemicals for example) and the futuristic (medical nanobots, nanosatellites), and so is on the cutting edge of applicative technologies and research. Though many research projects in nanotechnology are conducted in Israel, only few companies make it from concept to design to product. Only those companies are included in this sub-sector.


The Miscellaneous sub-sector includes companies that may not be categorized under any of the other sectors or sub-sectors, or may be hard to define altogether, since they are dealing with unique or esoteric technologies and niche markets.