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High-Tech Glossary: Sectors / Sub-Sectors / Tags



With our Advance Search option, you can search by name, location, industry and technology sectors. If you need to zero in on a specific buzzword, keyword or tag, IVC can help make your search easy and efficient. If you’re searching for “Cloud” for example, you’ll search under “Internet” or "IT & Enterprise Software".  IVC gives you the precise definition of technology keywords throughout our database. Use the Advanced Search engine's key word search for easy and efficient searches and results.






Sectors / Sub-Sectors

Agritech, Cleantech, Communications, Internet, IT & Enterprise Software, Life Sciences, Semiconductors, Miscellaneous Technologies.


Sector:  Agritech

Agritech, Agrotech, Agro Technology or Agricultural Technology, refers to the application of technology and innovation in the agricultural sector. AgriTech encompasses a wide range of technologies, including automation, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, big data analytics, and genetic engineering. These technologies are used in drones, robots, sensors, software systems, and crops to support functions such as field surveying and crop health monitoring, picking crops more efficiently and accurately, and reducing waste of resources like water and soil. Ultimately, the goal of AgriTech is to increase farm yields, reduce costs of production, improve the sustainability of farming, and increase the resilience of crops.   


AgriBiotech, Agricultural Biotechnology, Genetically engineered plants, Detoxify pollutants, Absorb pollutants, Biotechnology, Antibiotic production, Genomics, Genetic crop modification, Breeding, Biological pest control, Microbial enzyme engineering, Precision agriculture, Bioremediation, Bioenergy, Biochemicals, Industrial crops, Biofuels, Pharmaceuticals, Specialty chemicals, Biopesticides, Fertilizers, Pesticides, Biomaterials, Bioconversion, Cosmetics, Crop Protection, Fungicides, Fuels, Automation, Robotics, Agricultural drones, Efficiency, Labor costs, Autonomous tractors, Robotic milking machines, Fruit and vegetable picking robots, Smart Farming, Information and communications technologies, Sensors, Robots, Drones, Software, Soil conditions, Water use, Micro-climate conditions, Crop growth, Yield, Irrigation, Fertigation, Precision Agriculture, Novel Farming, Indoor farming, Vertical Farming, Big Data/Analytics, AI, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Farm Management Software, Data-based technologies, IoT, AgriFood, AgriFood technology, Aquaculture, Livestock and dairy farming, Alternative proteins, Feeding solutions, Dairy production technologies, Food additives, Food safety, Quality control systems, Fermentation methods, Post-harvest technologies. 



AgriBiotech  or Agricultural Biotechnology are tools altering living organisms to make new products, improve plants/animals or develop microbes for use.  It provides farmers with tools to make production cheaper and simpler. Genetically engineered plants help detoxify pollutants or absorb pollutants from soil. Biotechnology helps make antibiotic production more efficient. Benefits include making farming safer, reducing pesticide use, increasing quality and profit. 

Key Industries & Verticals: Genomics, Genetic crop modification, Breeding, Biological pest control, Microbial enzyme engineering, Precision agriculture, Bioremediation. 


AgriFood refers to the application of technology to improve and optimize the production, distribution and quality of food from agricultural sources. It involves using innovation and data across the entire food value chain from farm to fork. The goal of AgriFood technology is to make agriculture and food systems more efficient, sustainable, and safe. This can help ensure sufficient and nutritious food for a growing population. 

Key Industries & Verticals: Aquaculture and ocean farming to produce seafood. Livestock and dairy farming using technological tools and automation. Alternative proteins like cultivated and plant-based meat and dairy. Feeding solutions and additives for livestock and poultry. Dairy production technologies. Food additives and ingredients production. Apiculture or beekeeping technologies. Functional foods and nutraceuticals. Food safety and quality control systems. Fermentation methods and technologies. Post-harvest technologies for food packaging, preservation, and protection. 

Automation & Robotics   

Machinery and robotics that assist with agriculture tasks and processes. 

Key Industries & Verticals: Robotic and automated systems for tasks like harvesting crops, grading produce, sorting seeds, crop spraying, soil monitoring. Agricultural drones for surveying fields, mapping, crop monitoring, post-harvest, logistics & supply chain. The goals of automation and robotics in agriculture are to Increase efficiency, improve yields and reduce labor costs. Examples of automation and robotics may include: Autonomous tractors that can plow and plant fields with GPS guidance. Robotic milking machines that milk cows hands-free. Fruit and vegetable picking robots that use computer vision and artificial intelligence.

Bioenergy & Biochemicals   

Bioenergy is a form of renewable energy that is derived from recently living organic materials known as biomass, which can be used to produce transportation fuels, heat, electricity, and products. 

Biochemicals: Industrial crops are grown to produce goods for manufacturing. Rather than food and feed, they supply raw materials for making biofuels, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. Biochemicals such as the production of biopesticides, are an alternative to conventional pesticides. Biochemical biopesticides are compounds of natural origin possessing active ingredients that control pests by mechanisms that are non-toxic to the target pest, the environment, and humans.    

Fertilizers, pesticides, or other biomaterials are used by farmers to achieve higher crop yields, improve crop quality, endure diseases, and provide longer shelf life  

Key Industries & Verticals: Agro-chemicals, Biochemicals, Biological Control: E.g. the use of Pathogenic Fungi to kill pests. Biomaterials, Bioconversion, Bioenergy, Cosmetics, Crop Protection, Fertilizers, Fungicides, Fuels, Pharmaceuticals, Pesticides. 

Smart Farming  

Smart farming refers to the use of information and communications technologies to optimize agricultural production processes. It involves the use of sensors, robots, drones and software to collect data that is then analyzed to inform decisions that improve efficiency, reduce costs and minimize environmental impact. Smart farming technologies monitor key parameters such as soil conditions, water use, micro-climate conditions and crop growth and yield and help identify problems that would otherwise go unnoticed. By analyzing the data gathered through these technologies, farmers can make better decisions regarding crop management, irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide application and harvest planning. Overall, smart farming aims to achieve more sustainable agriculture through more precise, targeted and timely interventions based on real-time information and analytics. 

Key Industries & Verticals: Irrigation, Fertigation, Precision Agriculture, Novel Farming (innovative systems for growing plants like hydroponics or new types of greenhouses), Indoor farming, Vertical Farming. Data-based technologies making use of Big Data/Analytics, AI, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Farm Management Software etc. (predictive analytics of diseased crops and software to automate soil composition) to help farmers make better decisions on daily or the automation of farm work using IoT. 

Sector:  Cleantech

Short for Clean Technology, commonly used for products, services and processes designed to reduce or eliminate negative ecological impact and improve the productive and responsible use of natural resources. In this sector you will find companies developing eco-friendly technologies, technologies promoting efficiency and economy in the use of resources, recycling technologies and recyclable materials and technologies for the prevention and treatment of pollution.


Eco, Recycling, Waste, Treatment, Conservation, Purification, Control, Clean, Aqua, Farm, Recover, Pollution, Emission, GHG, Air, Quality



Refers to technologies that promote the use of alternative and renewable energy sources (wind, solar, geothermal, hydro/marine and biofuels), energy storage technologies and devices (fuel cells, advanced batteries and hybrid systems), as well as technologies promoting efficient and economic uses of energy (for lighting, climate controlled environments, conversion etc.) and technologies addressing the needs of the energy utilities and infrastructures sectors.


This subsector refers in generals to a myriad of eco-friendly technologies and processes including technologies for the treatment of solid waste and recycling, various eco-monitoring technologies and emission control, and technologies for pollution prevention or reduction.


This term is used to refer to technologies for the production of advanced chemical and bio materials, as well as technologies promoting the economical use of raw materials and recycled or recovered materials.
Please Note: Nano materials will be included under this category only if developed by a company specializing in advanced materials. Other Nano tech materials will be found under Miscellaneous Technologies/ Nanotechnology.

Water Technologies

A special category is dedicated to water-related technologies including water treatment & purification (desalination, filtration, UV treatment and wastewater treatment), water conservation and efficiency (water-efficient products, leakage control, and low-evaporation reservoirs), water infrastructures and supply (flow control, measurement & analysis, extreme conditions supply and water security & pollution prevention) and irrigation (despite some categorizations that view irrigation as agro technology).



Sector:  Communications

The Communications sector includes technologies that are targeted at the private and public telecommunications markets. It may be easier to define as what it does NOT include, such as Internet technologies, communications-related semiconductors and new media – all to be found under different sectors in the database. The technologies that ARE included are mainly related to communications infrastructures on the one hand and specific applications and devices on the other.




FTTx, xDSL, CATV, IPTV, MPEG, Router, Switch, Cable, LAN, WAN, WLAN, Wi-Fi, 802.11, 802.16, DSL, SOHO, WiFi, WiMax, LTE, OFDM, Ethernet, Radio, TV, Telecom, Telco, WLAN, GSM, TDMA, CDMA, VAS, Antenna, Wireless, Cellular, PDA, Operator, Modem, IP, RF, Telephony, Phone, Television, Carrier, ITU, SIP, Protocol, GPS, SDH, SONET, Fiber, PON.




Broadband Access

An access network is that part of a communications network which connects subscribers, mostly homes and businesses, to their immediate service provider (also referred to as The Last Mile). It is contrasted with the core network, which is the central part of the telecom network. Relevant technologies which enable the access network a wider bandwidth are: xDSL, FTTx (Fiber-To-The-X), PON (Passive Optical Network), BWA (Broadband Wireless Access).




Dedicated to Television, Video and Audio Broadcasting Technologies. Amongst them are CATV (Cable TV - a system of providing television to consumers via RF signals transmitted to televisions through fixed optical fibers or coaxial cables), IPTV (Internet Protocol Television - a system where a digital television service is delivered using Internet Protocol), ITV (Internet television - a television distributed through the Internet). Other relevant keywords: HDTV, VOD, Video and Audio Compression (MPEG), streaming and various satellite technologies.



Enterprise Networking

An enterprise network connects all the isolated departmental or workgroup networks into an intra-company network, with the potential for allowing all computer users in a company to access any data or computing resource. It provides interoperability among autonomous and heterogeneous systems, integration and management of disparate networks. The enterprise network has the eventual goal of reducing the number of communication protocols in use. Common technologies: LAN, WLAN, VPN, Ethernet.



Home Networking

Home network is defined as two or more computers interconnected to form a local area network (LAN) within the home (wired or wireless). It allows computer owners to interconnect multiple computers so that each can share files, programs, printers, other peripheral devices, and Internet access with other computers, reducing the need for redundant equipment. The advanced home network provides home automation, i.e. controls for the home ambient environment, security systems, household appliances etc. This sub-sector also includes SOHO (Small Office/Home Office) Networks.


Mobile Applications

Refers mostly to applications which are developed for Mobile phones and smartphones. Companies in this sub-sector engage mostly in the development of applications related to one or more of the following: Entertainment, Gaming, Advertisement, M-Commerce, LBS, Mobile web. Applications developed by companies in this sub-sector often use software technologies such as Symbian, BREW, Java, J2ME, and Linux.


Mobile Infrastructure

Includes companies which develop components (such as antennas, base stations, amplifiers etc.) and technologies which conduct the cellular network infrastructure. Furthermore, it contains companies which develop innovative mobile handsets. Relevant keywords: GSM, CDMA, Wimax, LTE, OFDM, 3G, 4G, HSPA.


NGN & Convergence

Next-Generation Network (NGN) is the term given to describe a telecommunications packet-based network that handles multiple types of traffic (such as voice, data and multimedia). It is the convergence of service provider networks that includes the public switched telephone network (PSTN), the data network (the Internet), and, in some instances, the wireless network as well. This sub-sector also includes Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) – the ability to provide fixed and mobile services with a single phone or personal device, which could switch between networks ad hoc.


Optical Networking

Dedicated to networking technologies that rely on optical transmission of digital data as light pulses using fiber optic communications. Optical networks are high-capacity telecommunications networks based on optical technologies and components that provide routing, grooming, and restoration at the wavelength level as well as wavelength-based services.

Companies included in this sub-sector engage in the development of technologies such as lasers, WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing), SDH/SONET (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy/Synchronous optical networking) and products such as fiber-optic cables, amplifiers and optical switches.

Please note that technologies such as PON and FTTx can be founded under the "Broadband Access" sub-sector.


Telecom Applications

Telecom applications refer mostly to software either embedded into a system or separately installed on a main computer, for the control, diagnostics and performance analyses of all telecom (mainly networking) hardware. The relevant applications provide different services, such as Network or traffic Management and Optimization, QoS (Quality of Service). OSS/BSS (Operations Support Systems / Business Support Systems), Billing, Roaming, CRM (Customer Relationship Management) and other Value Added Services (VAS). Main users of telecom applications are ISPs (Internet Service Providers), telecom carriers and service providers.


VoIP & IP Telephony

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over the Internet or other packet-switched networks. IP telephony describes telephony devices that use IP as the native transport for voice and call signalling. VoIP & IP Telephony are important for Computer telephony integration (CTI), a technology that allows interactions on a telephone and a computer to be integrated or coordinated. Other technological keywords might be H.323 - a set of standards from the ITU-T, which defines a set of protocols to provide audio and visual communication over an IP network, and SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).


Wireless Applications

Applications developed for wireless networks or PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant). Common usages of these applications are: business - rugged PDAs (EDA - Enterprise Digital Assistants) used for Mobile Workforce and Fleet Management; supply chain management or facilities maintenance and management such as remote monitoring and Telemetry. RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) applications, Navigation and LBS (Location Based Services) combining GPS. Other relevant wireless technologies are Wi-Fi and Wlan (802.11).


Wireless Infrastructure

Refers to telecommunications networks where interconnections between nodes are implemented without the use of wires. Relevant technologies include WLAN, Wi-Fi, WiMAX (802.16), RF, Microwave and Bluetooth. This subsector includes defense and military wireless networks and equipment as well.



Sector:  Internet

The Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections and other networking systems. The World Wide Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is merely a service accessible via the Internet. The sector includes mostly companies developing software applications and services that are primarily used over the Internet, as well as technologies for the use of Internet Service Providers (ISP) and Internet users.

Please Note that the basic communications infrastructures (hardware mostly) that create what is known as The Internet are to be found under the Communications sector, and the Networking, Optical Networking and Wireless Infrastructures sub-sectors in particular.


ISP, Web 2.0, EDI, P2P, Search Engine, Semantic Web, SN (Social Network), Online, HTML, XML, JavaScrip, Ajax, .NET, Widget, Server, Client, UI, GUI, Flash, PHP, ASP, Browser, e-mail, Website, SaaS (Software as a Service)



Online Advertising

This sub sector includes tools and technologies for online marketing and advertising. Among these are marketing analytics and consumer research tools for advertisers and site owners, offering the basis for contextual or behavioral advertising, online advertising tools such as video-embedded-advertising, banners and traffic generating technologies, as well as other forms of online marketing formats.

Internet Applications

Internet Applications refer to special software applications dedicated solely for Internet users and publishers. These include web user applications such as online messaging, email or browser add-ons (like RSS aggregators), and website publisher applications such as site building and design tools, traffic analytics, and so on.

Please note: this sub sector does not include intra or Internet based enterprise tools or software. These can be found under the IT & Enterprise Software sector.

Content Management

Content Management refers mainly to companies developing unique content, to be consumed by either Web or cellular surfers. Not every website offering content would be considered as a “Content Management Company”, a term used to refer to companies developing technologies that are the growth-engines at the base of a content-carrying Website. It may also be used to refer to companies offering user generated content (UGC), blogs, wikis, knowledge sharing, webcasts etc.

Content Delivery Platforms

This sub sector includes companies offering the technology and means for content-to-users syndication, rather than the generation or storage of the content itself. Companies found under this sub-sector develop products for file/media sharing and distribution such as P2P (Peer-to-Peer) applications; Content coding or syndication protocols such as Javascript, Flash or Ajax; Internet TV through online streaming and webcasting, and so on.


Electronic (e) commerce refers generally to web sites dedicated for commerce via the Internet but also the complete set of processes that support commercial business activities on a network. However, not every online shop is relevant to the purposes of this database, but rather the companies developing the technologies behind the online shelves such as electronic money transfers, billing, shopping comparison and recommendation engines, supply chain management, e-marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), automated inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems.


E-Learning includes companies offering platforms and content (including digital media formats), which enable web users to educate themselves on different subjects without human interaction and tutoring. E-Learning sites include those offering materials in academic fields (student material) and those offering general knowledge and education, such as cooking or stock trading.

Online Entertainment

Online Entertainment refers to websites offering recreational content, such as internet single and multiplayer games, gambling and gaming sites, music and media files by podcasting, video streaming or VOD (Video On Demand), etc.

Internet Infrastructure

Internet Infrastructure relates to technologies addressing consumers aside from private end-users, and may be used by ISPs, ASPs, Internet content providers, and Website owners. These can include – but are not limited to – Internet server-software, messaging protocols, Web browsers and e-mail programs. Web 2.0 related software may also include information storage, creation and dissemination capabilities and hosting services that go beyond the infrastructures immediately available to users.

Search Engines

Search Engines refers to technologies enabling the search of information by internet users. Included are commonly used search engines, crawlers, meta-search tools and aggregators. Significant importance in this view is given to Semantic web technologies, allowing search engines to deliver more accurate and relevant results for users, based on computer readable metadata assigned to common internet content. Semantic web is considered as ushering the next generation of internet development, Web 3.0.

Social Networks

A Social Network is a map of relationships between individuals, ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds. Web-based social networks allow users to connect with people with similar fields of interest, such as sports, dating, work, etc., by providing a collection of various ways for users to find each other and interact, such as chat, messaging, email, video, voice chat, file sharing, blogging, discussion groups, and so on. This sub sector includes social networking sites, as well as companies offering specialty applications for such sites.


IT & Enterprise Software

Sector:  IT & Enterprise Software

This sector groups together various software sub-sectors, emphasizing the aspect of Information Technology (IT) systems for the Enterprise market. Companies developing software products for enterprises and for business end-users can be found here, as well as some companies developing software for the home market, including various software components for use in PCs – either by an individual end user, or by a business end-user. It should be noted however that the sector does not encompass all companies where software is the core technology, since companies with software targeted at specific market niches are sometimes more relevant for other Sectors. Such companies may be found under Internet, Life Sciences/Healthcare IT, Communications/Telecom Applications and Semiconductors/Manufacturing Equipment & EDA. Also, embedded software technologies and products are more likely to be found by the products’ target market or function, in Cleantech, Communications, Semiconductors, Life Sciences and Miscellaneous Technologies.


CAD, CAM, ERP, CRM, BI, Cloud, Grid


Business Analytics

Analytics are defined as the extensive use of data, statistical and quantitative analysis, explanatory and predictive modeling, and fact-based decision-making. Business Analytics is used to describe specific enterprise software that gathers and interprets data in order to make better business decisions and to optimize business processes. In some cases the decision making process is automated. Analytics (in addition to data access and reporting) represents a subset of business intelligence (BI) software. Companies developing relevant technologies such as business intelligence and financial software are included in this sub-sector.

Design & Development Tools

Mostly refers to a set of software tools for creating other IT products, like software development tools or software used for analysis and quality assurance in the programming of other software systems. It may also refer to software tools used in the design of non-software products and automated manufacturing systems (CAD, CAM).

Enterprise Applications

Any set of software written for functions performed by an enterprise, from management down to production. These include ERP systems and ERP components such as manufacturing, supply chain management, financials, CRM, human resources, logistics and knowledge management. Also relevant are systems and services offered by the enterprises to internal users, using Intranet or Internet, sometimes referred to as Enterprise 2.0, for making use of concepts originally designed by Web 2.0 companies.

Enterprise Infrastructure

This term is used to define IT system infrastructures on the enterprise level such as servers, storage, network management systems, data warehouses and GRID systems. They are generally the software components managing the enterprise network of computers, linking the hardware and software used by the company into a seamless system.

Miscellaneous Software

Applies to software technologies or products not relevant to any of the other sub-sectors including GIS, publishing software, logistics, educational software, graphic software and more.


Security software products either embedded in the computer or available as a software package aimed at protecting computers from viruses, hackers and unauthorized access to data stored in these computers. These include anti-virus software, firewalls, access authorization systems, encryption coders and de-coders and intrusion-detection systems. Also included in this Sub-Sector are non-software security and homeland security technologies.


Sector:  Life Sciences

Life Sciences is a general term used to refer to biological technologies, medical technologies and healthcare-related technologies. Companies developing products for the healthcare market can be found in this sector, along with companies performing biological and genetic research, and companies developing technologies, tools and materials used in such research.



Biotechnology companies use biology to create products based on technological developments involving living systems and organisms. Bioinformatics, biologicals, industrial life science, diagnostics and therapeutics companies, with biological research at core are included.

The terms bioinformatics and computational biology are often used interchangeably. However bioinformatics more properly refers to the creation and advancement of algorithms, computational and statistical techniques, and theory to solve formal and practical problems inspired from the management and analysis of biological data. Relevant research in the field include sequence alignment, gene finding, genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, prediction of gene expression and protein-protein interactions, and the modeling of evolution. However, applied research usually focuses on DNA sequencing, and the study of gene regulation using data from microarrays or mass spectrometry.

Biologics or Biological science classifies and describes the various forms of organisms, how organisms function, how species come into existence, and interact with each other and with the environment. The science of biology as a whole includes such fields as botany, zoology, entomology, ecology, evolution and more. However, in the context of applied research and development, the term is generally used to refer mostly to companies active in the fields of microbiology, cellular biology and genetics.

Diagnostics using a biochemical process for medical diagnosis - the process of identifying a medical condition or disease by its signs, symptoms, and from the results of various procedures such as blood or urine tests. Included in this sub-sector are technologies specifically targeted at the diagnosis of a physical situation or a disease such as biopsies and various biochemical tests.

Industrial - in the case of Life Sciences this term is used to refer to industrial and consumer goods manufactured holly or in part from renewable biomass (plant based resources) applied to produce lubricants, animal feed, polymers, solvents, emulsifiers as well as natural fiber composite materials.

Therapeutics is the field of the various remedies that can be used to treat disease and promote health. The drug companies that use biological technologies and products in the process of pharmaceutical development belong to biotechnology field.

Digital Health

Digital health uses digital technologies to promote health, healthcare, living, and patient treatment to enhance the efficiency of healthcare delivery turning medicine more personalized and precise.

Health information technology is any software used by healthcare services which allows comprehensive management of medical information and its secure exchange between healthcare consumers and providers. This includes local systems used by hospitals or healthcare providers, as well as vertical systems used by HMOs and care providers to exchange information about patients and clients.

Telemedicine refers to any medical situation where a patient and healthcare provider (or even two healthcare providers) communicate in real time via telephone, teleconference or satellite. These include such scenarios as medical consultation via phone or video-conferencing, patient monitoring using tele-otoscopes, tele-stethoscopes and halters, and even robotic surgery in remote or hard-to-access locations, including space.

Medical Devices

This term is used to refer to an instrument, apparatus, appliance or other article, used on human beings for the diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment or alleviation of disease, injury or handicap. It is also used for items with medical purposes such as investigation, replacement or modification of the anatomy (like replacement joints) or of a physiological process (like heart defibrillators and stents). Medical devices may be as simple as a plastic syringe or as complex as an MRI system or a robotic surgical arm. Complex medical device systems may or may not include embedded software and may be used externally (ultrasound), internally (endoscope) or both (hearing aids). Due to the width of this sector, it is recommended to use medical or technical key words when searching a medical devices company.

Diagnostics is used to refer to a device used for medical diagnosis - the process of identifying a medical condition or disease by its signs, symptoms, and from the results of various procedures such as blood or urine tests. Included in this sub-sector are technologies specifically targeted at the diagnosis of a physical situation or a disease such as EKG, EEG, medical imaging.


Pharmaceutical companies research, develop, and market medicines made primarily from artificial sources, using chemical materials. It is the field of the various remedies that can be used to treat disease and promote health. Drug companies of all kinds, including generics and medical Cannabis development are included in this sub-sector.

Life Science Product development Terms

Phases in Life Science Product development consist of discovery, followed by pre-clinical trials (3-6 years on average) and three Clinical Trial Phases (6-7 years on average), which lead to regulatory approval certification. Clinical trial phases are based on human volunteer participation and progress by number of participants:

Phase I – Purpose: Safety and dosage tested on 20-100 participants

Phase II – Purpose: Efficacy and side effects tested on several hundred participants

Phase III – Purpose: Efficacy and monitoring of adverse reactions tested on up to several thousand participants

FDA Approved - a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within USA provided by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA), a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. 

CE Approved -  a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA).[1] The CE marking is also found on products sold outside the EEA that are manufactured in, or designed to be sold in, the EEA.



Sector:  Semiconductors

Semiconductors devices are components that provide the memory, logic and intelligence functions in electronic systems. In this sector there are companies that develop semiconductors for various industries (fabless companies), manufacturer of chips (fabrication companies), develop the equipment for manufacturing the chips and develop software for the developers of the chips.


ICs, chipsets, SoC (System-on-Chip), ASSP, ASIC, SIP (Semiconductor Intellectual property), DSP (Digital Signal Processor), FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), RFID, metrology, wafer, lithography, dicing, doping, dopants.



Wireless Communication

Companies that develop semiconductor devices for the wireless communication industry (GSM, WiMAX, WLAN, Wi-Fi, WPAN), such as cellular handsets, notebook computers and Navigation Devices.

Wireline Communication & Home Networking

Companies that develop semiconductor devices for the wireline communication industry (such as Telephone, cable TV and ADSL) and companies that develop the devices that distribute high speed IP data throughout the home over existing wires (home networking).

Network Processors

Companies that develop semiconductor devices for network processors such as routers and switches.

Video, Image & Audio Processors

Companies that develop semiconductor devices for video, image and audio component – processors and sensors - that are in use in many applications such as entertainment products, homeland security systems, automotive products and communication companies.

Manufacturing Equipment & EDA

Companies that develop the equipment for the manufacturing process of chips such as lithography, dicing and metrology (Manufacturing Equipment) and companies that create the designing tools for developing semiconductors devices (Electronic Design Automation - EDA Tools).

Fabrication & Testing

Companies that manufacture chips (Fabrication Companies) and companies that develop processes that inspect semiconductor device performance (Testing).


Companies that develop semiconductor devices for memory and storage solutions such as flash memory cards and USB drives.

Processors & RFID

Companies that develop semiconductor devices that process data and control the execution of program instructions in computers and electronic devices (Processors), and companies that develop RFID cards – an identification system that can read or write data content using a specified radio frequency (RFID) – used for product tagging and logistics.

Security Semiconductors

Companies that develop semiconductor devices that control security-related processes such as: authentication, encryption/decryption, secure boot, copy protection and digital rights management (DRM).

Miscellaneous Semiconductors

Companies that develop semiconductor devices for multiple sub sectors, or companies that develop products that are not included in the above sub sectors such as power, DSP and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).


Miscellaneous Technologies

Sector:  Miscellaneous Technologies

Other technologies not specified in Sectors above. These include: defense and homeland security technologies, hardware, industrial technologies, nanotechnologies and various other technologies that are not better described by one of our more defines sectors and sub sectors.



The Defense sub sector if dedicated to companies which develop military equipment and systems for all fields - navy, air and ground forces. It also includes companies developing technologies in fields such as robotics, rugged computers and electronic warfare (EW). The technologies developed by companies in this sub sector are mostly used by military units, armed forces and law enforcement agencies.


Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes programs and orders within the hardware. Hardware not only refers to personal computers or servers, but rather to any electronic device or component embedded in advanced systems such as automobiles, microwave ovens, electrocardiograph machines, compact disc players, and other devices. Other examples include Image, video and audio output devices (monitors, displays, stereos, speakers, headsets etc.), and computer peripherals like printers, keyboards, scanners and mouse devices.

Industrial Technologies

Industrial Technology includes wide-ranging subject matter and could be viewed as an amalgamation of industrial engineering. This sector includes companies developing technologies and products for various industrial markets such as electrical, engineering, electromechanical and mechanical equipment. Examples include digital printing equipment, electric generators and transformers, automotive technologies, robotics and more. A manufacturer involved in technologies that are a mix of various other sectors also falls under this category. The sector is also often used to refer to heavy industry and related technologies.


Nanoscale (one billionth of a meter) materials offer unique and commercially useful electrical, optical and mechanical properties due to their size, shape, and composition. This opens up new possibilities for applications in aerospace, automotive, biomedical, microelectronics, semiconductors, pharmaceutical, anti-friction coatings, photocatalysts, energy storage and other fields. Nanotechnologies today lies in the realm between the possible now (nano chemicals for example) and the futuristic (medical nanobots, nanosatellites), and so is on the cutting edge of applicative technologies and research. Though many research projects in nanotechnology are conducted in Israel, only few companies make it from concept to design to product. Only those companies are included in this sub-sector.


The Miscellaneous sub-sector includes companies that may not be categorized under any of the other sectors or sub-sectors, or may be hard to define altogether, since they are dealing with unique or esoteric technologies and niche markets.



Technology Tags 



AdTech (advertising technology) describes the software, programs, and tools used in digital advertising to connect with audiences, deliver campaigns, and measure the results of advertising. AdTech’s primary process is programmatic advertising, or the use of technology to buy and sell digital ads. This process is built on various platforms and networks, including the demand-side platform (DSP), a marketplace where advertisers can purchase ads, the supply-side platform (SSP), a tool for ad publishers that automates selling their ad inventory, the agency trading desk (ATD), where advertisers can plan and manage their ad purchases, ad networks, which aggregate ad inventory on the supply side and math them to the demand side, and ad servers, which serves ads to a website or app and reports performance metrics for those ads.



AgeTech is any type of technology that helps improve the lives of aging adults. It includes services purchased by or on behalf of older people, services traded between younger and older people, and services delivered to future older people. AgeTech is a broad industry that supports the safety, sociality, health, and connectivity of older adults, as well as impacting other spheres of adult life. Examples of AgeTech include wearable devices that track health data and detect falls, social media platforms that connect older adults to friends, and transportation assistance programs or easy-to-use rideshare apps.


AgriTech, or agricultural technology, refers to the application of technology and innovation in the agricultural sector. AgriTech encompasses a wide range of technologies, including automation, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, big data analytics, and genetic engineering. These technologies are used in drones, robots, sensors, software systems, and crops to support functions such as field surveying and crop health monitoring, picking crops more efficiently and accurately, and reducing waste of resources like water and soil. Ultimately, the goal of AgriTech is to increase farm yields, reduce costs of production, improve the sustainability of farming, and increase the resilience of crops.  

Artificial Intelligence: 

Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the creation of computer systems and machines that can imitate or simulate human intelligence. These systems are designed to perceive and understand their environment, learn from data or experiences, reason and make decisions, and perform tasks with varying degrees of autonomy. AI programming focuses on first acquiring data and creating algorithms for turning data into actionable information, and then choosing the right algorithm for a desired outcome. It also uses neural networks, statistical methods, and other techniques to generate new images, ideas, and other content. AI encompasses a range of technologies and techniques, including machine learning, natural language processing, computer vision, and robotics. Its applications span numerous domains, from virtual assistants and recommendation systems to self-driving cars and advanced medical diagnostics. 

Augmented Reality: 

Augmented Reality (AR) refers to a technology that superimposes digital content onto the real-world environment. It combines computer-generated elements such as images, videos, and 3D models with the real world in real-time to enhance a user's perception and interaction with their surroundings. A primary goal of AR is to highlight specific features of the physical world, increase understanding of those features through its computer-generated elements, and derive accessible insights with real world applications. This process can be used in many different industries; trying on virtual clothes, training medical professionals, or providing immersive educational tools are a few examples. 


In the context of technology, "autonomous" refers to the capability of a system or device to operate and make decisions independently, without requiring continuous human intervention or control. Autonomous technology often involves the use of artificial intelligence, sensors, and algorithms to perceive and analyze information from the environment, adapt to changing conditions, and execute tasks without direct human input.

Autonomous Car: 

Autonomous cars, or self-driving cars, are vehicles that can travel without human input. They use advanced technologies like sensors, cameras, radar, and artificial intelligence to perceive their surroundings, make real-time decisions, and control various systems, including navigation. The key feature of autonomous cars is their ability to run safely and efficiently without direct human intervention. These cars have the potential to revolutionize transportation as we know it. They can reduce accidents, improve traffic flow, and increase accessibility for individuals who cannot drive. To better understand the capabilities of autonomous cars, they are categorized into various levels of automation. These levels range from Level 0, which has no automation, to Level 5, which has full automation. Autonomous cars are a significant focus of research and development in the automotive industry. The goal is to make transportation safer, more convenient, and environmentally friendly.


The automotive industry encompasses the design, production, and sale of all types of automobiles, along with the manufacturing of automotive parts and accessories. It includes automakers, suppliers, dealerships, and related support industries like mechanics and repair. Technology has become increasingly prominent in the automotive industry in recent years with the rising popularity of electric vehicles and autonomous cars. However, there are many other applications of technology in the industry as well Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication, augmented reality and heads-up displays, vehicle cybersecurity, and lightweight materials and 3D printing are all examples of other technological applications that increase the capabilities, productivity, and safety of modern vehicles. 

Big Data: 

Big Data refers to extremely large datasets, usually consisting of data from many sources and applications, that are too large and complex for traditional data processing software. These datasets are generated at high volume, high velocity, and in a wide variety of structures, and are used to identify patterns, trends, and insights that can be used in various applications across many industries. Social media platforms generate enormous amounts of data in the form of all kinds of user interaction. Banks and financial institutions use big data to detect fraud patterns, manage risk, and optimize their customer relationships. Big data can even be seen in meteorology, as weather satellites across the world gather large amounts of data to track environmental conditions.  


Blockchain is a shared, immutable ledger that facilitates the process of recording transactions and tracking assets in a business network. When a transaction occurs, it is recorded as a “block” of data in the ledger, which can’t be changed. Each block is connected to the ones before and after it, forming a chain of data as an asset changes ownership. All network participants have access to the distributed ledger and its immutable record of transactions, and the network is completely decentralized, meaning there is no central authority over the ledger or network. Virtually anything of value can be tracked and traded on the network; assets can be tangible (a house, cash, land) or intangible (intellectual property, copyrights, branding). The most common asset traded on blockchain is cryptocurrency. Blockchain provides greater trust in records, greater security on transactions, and a more efficient network. 

Business Intelligence

Climate Tech: 

Climate tech refers to a broad range of technological innovations and solutions aimed at preventing, mitigating or adapting to climate change and promoting environmental sustainability. These technologies typically aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, conserve natural resources, and foster a more sustainable and resilient society. Climate tech encompasses various sectors and applications, including energy, transportation, agriculture, and waste management. Examples include renewable energy technologies like solar power or wind turbines, electric vehicles, carbon capture and storage, climate monitoring, and more.  


“Cloud” refers to cloud computing services, which involves the delivery of various computing services such as storage, servers, databases, software, and networking over the internet. The “cloud” acts as a virtual space where users can access its services remotely, without any local infrastructure or hardware needed. Users can store and process data, build and test applications, deliver on-demand software, and more. Most cloud computing services fall into four categories: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), software as a service (SaaS), and serverless. With IaaS, users rent IT infrastructure, like servers or storage, from their cloud provider. PaaS supplies on-demand environments for developing, testing, delivering, and managing software applications, which makes it easier for developers to quickly build web or mobile apps. SaaS is a method for delivering software applications over the internet, with the cloud providers hosting and managing the applications and underlying infrastructure. Serverless computing overlaps with PaaS and focuses on building app functionality without continually managing servers and infrastructure. Reduced costs, faster speeds, more reliability, and scalability are some of the benefits of cloud computing services.  

Cloud Security

Computer Vision: 

Computer vision is a branch of artificial intelligence and computer science focused on teaching computers to understand visual information from images or videos. This involves creating special instructions, known as algorithms, that allow computers to analyze and interpret what they "see" in pictures or videos. The goal is to make computers capable of doing things similar to human vision, like recognizing objects, understanding movement, and figuring out important details from visual data. Computer vision systems use techniques from image processing, pattern recognition, and machine learning to do tasks like identifying objects, tracking motion, understanding the layout of a scene, and making decisions based on what they "see." This technology finds many uses, like analyzing images and videos, spotting and naming objects, recognizing faces, making self-driving cars, looking at medical images, controlling robots, creating augmented reality experiences, and more.

Consumer Electronics

Construction Tech: 

Construction technology is any technology that improves the efficiency, productivity, safety, or sustainability of construction. This can consist of innovative tools, machinery, software, or any application used to improve the way construction projects are planned, designed, executed, and managed. Safety is a major application of construction tech, and the use of drones, robotics, wearable technologies, and prefabrication have greatly reduced the risk to construction workers by automating dangerous tasks and more effectively planning projects. Building information modeling (BIM) software and virtual reality also help model projects and improve the overall efficiency of the construction process. 


Cryptocurrencies are digital systems that allow secure online payments using virtual tokens. These tokens, known as digital currency, rely on cryptography to ensure secure financial transactions and prevent counterfeiting. Cryptocurrencies operate on decentralized networks called blockchains, where each transaction adds a secure data block to the chain. The use of decentralized networks and cryptography makes cryptocurrency safer and more secure compared to government or bank currencies. Furthermore, cryptocurrency and blockchain enable faster and more accessible transactions globally. However, cryptocurrency is highly volatile and has liquidity challenges due to limited exchanges for trading and limited everyday uses in purchases.

Cyber Security: 

Cyber Security, also known as information technology security or electronic information security, cybersecurity is the practice of protecting critical systems, computers, servers, mobile devices, electronic systems, networks and their sensitive information / data, from digital attacks using a wide range of technologies, processes, and polices. Cybersecurity practices fall under many domains, the most common including critical infrastructure security, application security, cloud security, and network security. These security measures all deal with protecting an organization’s data, networks, and systems through intrusion detection systems, firewalls, data encryption, vulnerability scans, and more. They commonly protect against threats like ransomware (malware that locks down and threatens to destroy data), phishing (tricking users into providing sensitive information), or DDoS attacks (which flood servers with traffic to take them offline).  

Data Analytics: 

Data analytics is the process of examining and interpreting large sets of data to uncover meaningful insights, patterns, and trends. It involves using various statistical and analytical techniques to extract valuable information and knowledge from raw data. Data analytics encompasses several stages, including data collection, data cleaning and preprocessing, data modeling and analysis, and data visualization. It often involves using advanced tools, algorithms, and technologies to handle and process large volumes of data efficiently. The goal of data analytics is to gain a deeper understanding of the data, identify relationships between variables, and make informed decisions or predictions based on the findings. Data analytics is widely used in various fields and industries, including business, finance, healthcare, marketing, sports, and more. It helps organizations gain insights into customer behavior, improve operational efficiency, identify market trends, detect fraud, optimize resource allocation, and support evidence-based decision-making.

Data Protection

Data Security

Deep Learning: 

Deep learning is an artificial intelligence (AI) method that enables computers to process data in a manner inspired by the human brain. Deep learning models have the ability to identify intricate patterns in various forms of data, such as images, text, sounds, and more, resulting in accurate insights and predictions. It is a subset of machine learning that utilizes artificial neural networks to learn from data. These models typically consist of interconnected nodes, similar to neurons in the human brain, organized into multiple layers. The presence of multiple layers allows deep learning models to grasp complex patterns within the data. For instance, an image recognition model may have one layer dedicated to detecting edges, another layer for identifying shapes, and a third layer for recognizing objects. Data plays a crucial role in the learning process of deep learning models. The more data a model is exposed to during training, the better it becomes at comprehending intricate patterns. Currently, deep learning is widely used in image and speech recognition, as well as natural language processing. However, its applications continue to expand and evolve.

Deep Tech: 

Deep Tech encompasses technology grounded in scientific research or engineering breakthroughs, spanning fields like quantum computing, electric vehicles, and genetic testing. Developing and commercializing products in this domain necessitates substantial investments of time and resources, and companies rely heavily on tech-savvy scientists and engineers to devise novel solutions. Deep Tech companies only tackle problems unaddressed by existing technologies, and the solutions have potential to create significant impact across many industries. They are therefore largely disruptive and often trigger significant market transformations. These solutions are critical for solving complex global issues like climate change, sustainable energy, or global health. Examples of recent deep tech developments includes artificial intelligence, blockchain, internet of things, and quantum computing; all of which have had substantial influence on many different industries in recent years.

Desert Tech: 

Desert technology is tackling the issues surrounding desertification. Desertification refers to the ecological deterioration process wherein fertile land transitions into arid conditions, leading to the loss or reduction of its productivity. One can discover and establish connections with agricultural, water, renewable energy, and infrastructure solutions that pertain to the worldwide desert challenges, encompassing water scarcity, land degradation, extreme climate conditions, and remote habitation.


evOps is a software development approach that combines software development (Dev) and information technology operations (Ops) to enhance collaboration, streamline processes, and automate the delivery of software applications. Critical practices in DevOps includes continuous integration, delivery, and monitoring, all designed to support the integration of development, testing, and deployment of products and services. They serve to dismantle barriers between teams, improve collaboration and communication, and heighten the security of the organization. They also help attain heightened speed, improve quality, and reduce expenses of the entire software application development process. DevOps is gaining traction as a contemporary approach to software development. 


Diagnostics refers to the process of gathering information, identifying problems, and developing solutions using software or hardware. Diagnostics are most commonly used in healthcare and IT, as their primary application is checking the health of systems (human or machine) and quickly identifying any problems in performance. Diagnostics often take form in various tests, whether it be checking computer system health and performance or scanning for health issues in humans. Continuous monitoring is another form of diagnostics, where health is tracked over time to identify patterns or potential weaknesses. This can be through a software application for systems monitoring, or health trackers like wearable heart rate monitors. Diagnostics help ensure smooth performance and efficiency by providing quality monitoring and data. 

Digital Health: 

Digital health refers to the use of information and communications technologies in medicine and other health professions to manage illnesses, identify health risks, and promote various other positive health outcomes such as mental wellness. Digital health has a broad scope and includes the use of wearable trackers and monitors, mobile health apps, telehealth services, health information technology, and more. These resources enhance healthcare access, lower its costs, and improve its quality by addressing inefficiencies in the healthcare system. They also help diagnose and treat disease, manage chronic illness, and improve overall public health. 


The term “drone” refers to any unpiloted aircraft that relies on software or remote command for autonomous flight. They are typically equipped with propellors and sensors to control movement, GPS, camera, radar, and lidar, which allow it to track locations, collect data, and perform a variety of tasks in different environments. Drones have a multitude of use cases and have already impacted many different industries, including military surveillance, crop maintenance, food delivery, and environmental or political research in dangerous areas. In any application, drones provide increased efficiency, reduced risk, lower costs, and greater convenience. 


EdTech, or education technology, is the use of technology tools to create more engaging, personalized, and effective learning experiences, and increase the overall quality of education. Edtech includes software and hardware tools that make it easier for students to stay engaged, increase accessibility to resources, improve interactions between students and teachers, and help teachers organize coursework and grades more efficiently through task automation. Common EdTech tools include online learning platforms and forums, gamification, and big data applications for tracking student progress. Advancements in EdTech help optimize the education experience for students, teachers, and universities, often lowering costs and improving metrics of student success. 


Endpoint Security


Fashion Tech: 

Fashion Tech involves any disruptive or innovative technology used within the fashion industry. This can include developments in the design, manufacturing, sustainability, or retail aspects of fashion. There are many different facets of applications in fashion tech, the most popular being wearable technology. Smart watches, jewelry, and fitness trackers combine fashion and functionality by allowing users to track health metrics without sacrificing style. Other applications include 3D printing (used to create custom garments, innovative fabrics or other materials), robots that reduce errors in manufacturing and speed up production, artificial intelligence can be used to design clothes, and even smart fabrics embedded with sensors to track body temperature and adapt to climate. All of these advancements in fashion tech serve to optimize the industry- reducing costs, increasing sustainability, and personalizing the customer experience to make it more efficient.


FemTech provides a wide range of solutions to improve health and wellness for women across a number of female-specific conditions, including maternal health, menstrual health, fertility, menopause, pelvic floor muscles, and contraception, as well as several general health conditions that affect women disproportionately (such as osteoporosis). FemTech applications include tracking and monitoring devices for health conditions, online health communities and forums, clothing and fabrics with specific functionality for women’s health needs, workforce and career development platforms for women’s empowerment in the workplace, and even augmented reality beauty services


FinTech, or financial technology, consists of new technology that modifies, enhances, or automates financial services for businesses and consumers. It is generally composed of specialized software and algorithms that reduce costs and increase the safety and efficiency of financial operations. One of the most popular aspects of fintech is its use of blockchain as a decentralized trading platform for cryptocurrencies. Other applications include investment platforms that make investing faster and more accessible, payment and transfer apps that allow for fast, secure transactions between accounts, and robo-advisors that use algorithms to give financial advice or build and manage a financial portfolio. Fintech is one of the most rapidly growing industries and consistently responds to developments in other industries like Artificial Intelligence or big data. 

Fleet Management


Food technology is the branch of food science that addresses the production, preservation, quality control and research and development of food products. The primary goal of food tech is to improve the way food is produced, processed, and distributed. Examples of foodtech applications range from lab-grown food and robotic farming systems to restaurant and grocery delivery systems. These services increase the safety of food consumption, reduce waste in the production and distribution process, increase its sustainability and its accessibility to everyone. 

Fraud Detection


Gaming is a term referencing the video game industry (a segment of the global entertainment industry) which includes various platforms for video games (console, pc, mobile) and genres (action, role-playing, puzzle). There are many different types of gaming, one of the most popular being social gaming- where gamers play online with other people. Other prominent types include simulation games, online gambling, and educational gamification, where video games are leveraged as learning tools for children. This has become increasingly useful as technology becomes more mainstream in households, utilizing puzzles, math games, music games, and more to help develop children in a fun way. Competitive Esports have also become increasingly mainstream, gaining popularity during the pandemic.


Generative AI: 

Generative AI is a branch of artificial intelligence that enables users to generate new content, such as images, text, or music based on a variety of inputs and existing data. Generative AI models work by using neural networks to identify patterns and structures from data, using unsupervised or semi-supervised learning, to generate original content. Many generative AI models use generative adversarial networks (GANs), which consist of a generative network (the part that generates new content) and a discriminative network (the part that differentiates between the generated content and real examples). Generative AI can help improve productivity by automating tasks, improve creativity by developing new ideas, and assisting in decision making by providing new insights. Models are not perfect and can contain bias or privacy issues due to their lack of regulation, but generative AI is still often used in industries like marketing to develop ad campaigns, or finance to create market insights or predict trends.


Healthcare refers to the maintenance and improvement of physical and mental health through the provision of medical services. It encompasses a wide range of services, from preventive care to diagnostic and treatment services, as well as rehabilitation and palliative care. The goal of healthcare is to promote and maintain health, prevent illness and injury, and treat and manage diseases and conditions. It is a vital component of any society, ensuring that individuals have access to the care they need to live healthy and productive lives.

Healthcare IT: 

Healthcare IT, or Health Information Technology (HIT), is the use of technology in healthcare to make managing, delivering, and coordinating healthcare services better. It involves using computers, software, and communication tech to store, manage, share, and analyze health-related info. This helps with things like keeping electronic health records, using telehealth and telemedicine, and using data analytics to support medical decisions. These tech tools make clinics and hospitals provide better care, keep patients safe, and involve patients more.

HR Tech: 

HR tech, or human resources technology, is a broad term that refers to the software and hardware used to automate essential HR functions. HR tech can help HR professionals streamline time-consuming tasks, such as filing, talent acquisition, performance management, data storage and organization. HR tech usually takes form in software systems and applications. Examples include HRIS (Human Resources Information System), a software system that helps organizations manage their HR data, ATS (Applicant Tracking System), a software system that helps organizations manage their hiring process, and performance management software, which helps companies track employee performance and provide feedback.

Identity & Access Management

Image Processing

Image Recognition


Mission-driven companies focus on creating positive effects or influence through product/service development in various industries. These impact technologies prioritize sustainability, reducing environmental impact, promoting renewable energy, and managing emissions/waste. They also address social welfare concerns like healthcare/education access. Impact innovation's significance has grown due to recognition of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDGs cover objectives such as poverty/hunger eradication, good health/well-being, quality education, gender equality, clean water/sanitation, affordable/clean energy, decent work/economic growth, industry/infrastructure support, inequality reduction, sustainable cities/communities, responsible consumption/production, climate action, underwater/on-land life conservation, and peace/justice/strong institutions via partnerships. Evaluating the impact of technology helps understand its significance and outcomes in terms of benefits, challenges, and consequences it has on individuals, society, industries, and the environment. 

Industry 4.0: 

Industry 4.0, also referred to as the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is the current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. It is characterized by the use of advanced digital technologies to create smart factories that can operate autonomously and communicate with each other. Industry 4.0 encompasses various technologies that are transforming the industrial landscape, including the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, big data analytics, cloud computing, cyber-physical systems, and more. These technologies help build things like sensors, robots, and software algorithms that monitor performance, increase efficiency, and reduce maintenance costs. Developments in Industry 4.0 also increase the safety of manufacturing and the quality of products produced.


Insurtech refers to insurance technology, or the use of tech innovations to optimize the insurance industry. These technologies include digital platforms, data analytics, machine learning, and other technologies to provide more accessible, efficient, and cost-effective solutions for all types of insurance. Examples of insurtech applications include online insurance marketplaces, automated claims processing, data analytics for risk assessment, and usage-based insurance, which monitors customer behavior to provide relative insurance premiums based on their usage patterns. Along with optimizing the existing industry, insurtech innovations have also developed new business models that have improved customer engagement and disrupted existing methods of insurance transactions.

Internet of Things (IoT): 

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the interconnected network of physical devices, vehicles, appliances, and other objects embedded with sensors, software, and network connectivity, enabling them to collect and exchange data. IoT applications span across a wide range of sectors, including home automation, healthcare, transportation, agriculture, manufacturing, energy management, and more. Applications can include things like smart thermostats, which gather data about temperature and occupancy and adjust themselves accordingly, wearables like fitness trackers that track health patterns, as well as industrial machinery in manufacturing plants that monitor performance and identify potential problems. The main idea behind IoT is to enable these devices, whether they are household items or complex machines, to communicate with each other and with central systems over the internet, creating an ecosystem where data can be collected, analyzed, and acted upon in real-time. This interconnectedness allows for smart automation, data-driven decision-making, and enhanced capabilities for various industries and daily life applications.


Legal tech, short for legal technology, refers to the use of technology and software applications to streamline and enhance legal services and processes. It encompasses a wide range of tools, platforms, and solutions that aim to improve efficiency, accuracy, accessibility, and affordability within the legal industry. Key aspects of legal tech include version control and search capabilities for organizing and managing large number of documents and cases, legal research platforms and databases, and E-discovery software that automates the process of collecting and preserving electronic evidence in litigation. Legal tech helps quicken legal processes, reduce costs, and improve the accuracy of important legal information.


Machine Learning: 

Machine learning (ML) is a branch of Artificial Intelligence that uses data and algorithms to gradually improve a software application’s accuracy in predicting outcomes. ML algorithms use historical data to produce an estimate or prediction about a future pattern in that data. The three main types of ML are supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. In supervised learning, the algorithm is trained on a set of input and desired output data. The algorithm uses both sets to identify patterns in the input that are associated with the output. In unsupervised learning, there is no labeled output data available, and the algorithm is tasked to identify patterns without any guidance. In reinforcement learning, the algorithm makes decisions by trial and error; it is given a reward for taking action towards the desired outcome and learns to maximize its reward. ML has a wide variety of uses in many industries, some popular examples including music recommendations (unsupervised), financial fraud detection (supervised), and self-driving cars (reinforcement). 

Machine Vision: 

Machine vision is the ability of a computer to extract meaningful information from digital images or videos. It is a field of computer science that is closely related to artificial intelligence and image processing. Machine vision systems typically consist of four main components: image acquisition, image processing, feature extraction, and decision making. Machine vision is used in a wide variety of applications, including manufacturing, healthcare, and transportation. In manufacturing, machine vision is used to inspect products, identify defects, and guide robots. In healthcare, machine vision is used to diagnose diseases, perform surgery, and monitor patients. In transportation, machine vision is used to control traffic, monitor road conditions, and identify objects. The benefits of using machine vision include increased accuracy, increased efficiency, and reduced costs. Machine vision systems can be much more accurate than human inspectors, and they can automate tasks that were previously done by humans. This can free up human workers to focus on other tasks, and it can also lead to increased productivity and reduced costs

Marketing Tech: 

Marketing tech encompasses the tools and software marketers use to plan, execute, and measure marketing campaigns. It combines marketing strategies and techniques with technological advancements to help businesses reach their target audience, drive customer engagement, and achieve their marketing goals more effectively. Examples of marketing tech applications include customer relationship management (CRM) software, social media and content management systems, search engine optimization, customer data platforms, advertising tech solutions, and more. All of these applications serve to manage and analyze customer data, create and publish online campaigns, track engagement and ad performance, and optimize the connectivity between the consumer and the product. Marketing tech increases the amount of available data, improves automation practices, and helps create more personalized ad campaigns to reach and retain a target audience more effectively.

Medical Cannabis: 

Medical cannabis is a term for the use of the Cannabis sativa plant or its extracts to treat symptoms of illness and other conditions. It involves the use of cannabis or cannabinoids, the active ingredient in cannabis that interact with the body's endocannabinoid system (system of receptors and signaling molecules that plays a role in regulating pain, appetite, mood, and sleep). The effects of medical cannabis are still being heavily studied, but there is evidence that it can be a safe and effective treatment for many different conditions. Muscle spasms, chronic pain, cancer-related pain, and depression are a few examples of conditions medical cannabis is currently being used to treat. Laws for medical cannabis still vary by country as there is still some uncertainty to how use of the drug effects different people with varying conditions; however, many countries in recent years have begun removing restrictions for its use. 


The term "metaverse" refers to the concept of a virtual reality space where people can interact with each other and digital objects in a collective virtual shared environment. It is often depicted as a fully immersive, three-dimensional virtual world, but it can also include augmented reality experiences that blend the virtual and physical worlds. It combines virtual and augmented reality with the internet and various emerging technologies to create such a world. Within the metaverse, users can socialize, work, shop, and play games. They can also create and distribute their own content and interact in real time with other users, all in a continuously existing space- meaning users can enter and exit at any time. The metaverse leverages virtual and augmented reality, artificial intelligence, blockchain, and other emerging technologies, and has been gaining popularity in recent years alongside advancements in these technologies. Its primary goal is to seamlessly integrate the physical and digital world, allowing for a more immersive online experience, better online interaction and communication, and even more expanded possibilities in the digital realm. While still in its early stages of development, the metaverse has shown promise as a new way of integrating the digital world into our reality. 


Network Security


Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a machine learning technology that gives computers the ability to interpret, manipulate, and comprehend human language. It works by combining computational linguistics (constructing human language models with software), machine learning (training a computer to improve its efficiency), and deep learning models (teaching computers to think like humans) to process speech or text. Companies use NLP software to automatically process data from human communication channels, analyze its sentiment, and respond in real time. NLP software can work through differences in dialect, slang, and grammar to fully and efficiently analyze text and speech data. This is important for businesses to efficiently process large documents, analyze customer feedback, and improve business analytics, which are necessary practices for almost any business from legal to retail.

Open Source


PLG (Product-Led Growth)

Predictive Analytics: 

Predictive analytics refers to the practice of using historical data, statistical algorithms, and machine learning techniques to make predictions about future events or outcomes. The process of predictive analytics typically involves collecting historical data from various sources, cleaning and transforming it to ensure its quality, and applying statistical and machine learning algorithms to the data to build a predictive model based on identified patterns and trends. Models can then be used to make predictions or forecasts on new, unseen data. These predictions can help organizations make informed decisions, optimize processes, mitigate risks, and gain a competitive advantage. Examples of predictive analytics applications include predicting customer behavior and preferences, forecasting sales or demand, identifying fraudulent financial activities, optimizing maintenance schedules, predicting equipment failures, and analyzing risk profiles.


Privacy tech encompasses various technologies, tools, and services designed to safeguard user privacy. Individuals, businesses, and governments can utilize these technologies to maintain the confidentiality and security of information. An essential aspect of privacy tech is compliance with privacy protection measures. With the increasing volume and sensitivity of collected data, users, businesses, and governments bear a greater responsibility to uphold user privacy. Consequently, privacy compliance regulations have become stricter and more widespread, necessitating institutions to enhance data protection practices and security. Numerous privacy tech advancements aim to address these protective measures. They include compliance gap analysis software, data management tools, and protection services that facilitate controlled and compliant data distribution. Additionally, privacy tech encompasses encryption (converting data into a coded form accessible only with a decryption key), anonymization (separating personally identifiable information from user data), and privacy-focused software and systems. These solutions empower users to retain control over their data and impede tracking by applications and websites. As the digital world expands, the importance of privacy tech grows, with emerging technologies like web3 and blockchain prioritizing user data protection and digital security.


PropTech, short for property technology, refers to the use of technology and innovation in the real estate business. It includes a wide range of digital solutions, software platforms, hardware devices, and data-driven techniques aimed at improving the way properties are purchased, sold, rented, maintained, and used. Virtual reality house tours, property management software, online property marketplaces, and smart home technologies are all examples of property technology. Platforms for crowdfunding real estate projects and investing in real estate have also grown in popularity in recent years. All of this serves to make the property purchase and management process more efficient, accessible, and transparent.

P2P (Peer-to-Peer)

Quantum Technology: 

Quantum technology is a field of technology that uses principles of quantum mechanics (the behavior of matter and energy at the smallest scale) to develop new applications and technologies. The three major principles of quantum technology are quantum superposition, quantum entanglement, and quantum tunneling. Quantum superposition is the ability of a quantum particle to exist in multiple states at the same time. This is utilized in quantum computing, where quantum bits (bits that can exist in states of 0 and 1 simultaneously) are used instead of classical computer bits to solve complex problems exponentially faster. These problems include factorizing large numbers, optimizing complex systems, or searching large databases as a few examples. Quantum entanglement occurs when two or more particles become connected in a way that the state of one particle is instantly correlated with the state of another (regardless of distance). This is often used in quantum communication to create more secure and unbreakable communication channels. Quantum tunneling is the ability of a quantum particle to pass through an energy barrier that a classical particle could not pass through. This can be used in scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) or quantum imaging to image objects that are too small or delicate for classical imaging techniques- often at the atomic level. Quantum technologies are new and complex but have immense potential and have already found an impact in many industries. 


RetailTech encompasses digital tools and services that aid retailers in managing and optimizing their operations. It includes Point of Sale (POS) systems, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems, and VR e-commerce software. These tools streamline retail processes such as inventory management, sales tracking, payment processing, and personalized customer experiences. Retail tech also utilizes artificial intelligence and machine learning to optimize pricing, detect fraud, and offer tailored customer service. Innovative retail tech is vital for maintaining competitiveness, enhancing accessibility, efficiency, and personalization in the retail experience. RetailTech is, often overlapping / intersecting: E-commerce, Instore (operations and analytics), Supply Chain and logistics tech, Robotic fulfillment, Last Mile Delivery, Cashier-less Checkout, Loyalty and Rewards Tech. 

Risk Management


Robotics is a multidisciplinary field combining engineering and technology innovations to design, construct, program, and operate machines known as robots. Robots are built to perform tasks automatically or with human assistance, often replacing human labor in repetitive or dangerous practices. They also come in various forms, anywhere from simple machines with singular tasks to an advanced humanoid capable of interacting with humans. Robots use sensors, actuators and data processing, sometimes intersecting with artificial intelligence, to interact with the physical world. Robots are often utilized in manufacturing to reduce human error and risk and create more efficient manufacturing practices. They are also used in healthcare to perform surgery and patient care, in defense to patrol and gather intelligence, and even in space exploration. In any applicable field, robotics increase efficiency and consistency, improve safety, and reduce costs over time. 


Software as a Service (SaaS) is a subscription-based software licensing and delivery model. It is also referred to as on-demand, web-based, or web-hosted software. SaaS involves providing software applications over the internet as a service in a cloud computing framework. The software is hosted on remote servers, maintained and updated by the service provider. Users access it through web browsers, mobile apps, and APIs via a subscription service. SaaS applications have diverse applications, both personal and professional, encompassing everything from online entertainment to advanced business analytics. SaaS offers various advantages, including cost-effectiveness, scalability, and accessibility from anywhere with an internet connection.


A sensor is a vital device that identifies and measures different physical, chemical, biological, or environmental attributes. It then changes these attributes into electrical signals or other measurable types of data. Sensors have a crucial role in gathering real-world information and offering input to electronic systems, enabling them to observe, control, and react to their surroundings. They are used in various technologies and industries, such as car systems, electronic gadgets, industrial automation, medical equipment, environmental monitoring, and more. Additionally, functions like touch sensing, temperature measurement, motion detection, and light sensing greatly depend on sensor abilities.

Smart City: 

A smart city is an urban area that utilizes various electronic data collection sensors to gather information for efficient management of assets and resources. It is a municipality that incorporates information and communication technologies to enhance operational efficiency, share information with the public, and improve the quality of government services and citizen welfare. Smart cities aim to improve the efficiency of city operations, enhance the quality of life for citizens, and foster economic growth. They are resilient cities that leverage technology to address environmental, social, and economic challenges of the 21st century. Smart city technologies focus on optimization and efficiency, such as optimizing road infrastructure and promoting self-driving cars, as well as fostering social connectivity and collaboration to enhance city usage and minimize waste. These cities strive for sustainable economic development and a high quality of life, excelling in various aspects such as economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. Smart cities embrace digital technology, deploying sensors and networks to monitor aspects of urban life, from water quality and traffic to power usage and public safety. They leverage connectivity and computing power to tackle challenges and improve the quality of life for citizens. Additionally, smart cities prioritize sustainability and security, connecting buildings, cars, and machines to constantly transmit data for the betterment and development of the city. They utilize technologies to monitor pollution levels and ensure a safe and healthy environment. Smart cities also offer modern services, such as e-learning education and 24/7 healthcare, to cater to the needs of all inhabitants.

Smart Home


Spacetech, or space technology, involves applying engineering principles to design, develop, manufacture, and operate devices and systems for space travel, exploration, and related activities. It encompasses a wide range of technologies and disciplines, including satellites, instruments, astronautics, physics, chemistry, and biology. Spacetech is crucial for exploring other planets, studying the universe, and enabling communication and navigation in space. It focuses on innovative solutions to address challenges in the space industry, such as lack of equipment reusability, excessive costs, and limited accessibility. This includes advancements in spacecraft design, control systems, power systems, satellites, launch vehicles, and communication systems. Recent developments aim to enhance sustainability and accessibility, such as reusable spacecraft, 3D printing for in-space manufacturing, smaller satellites, and suborbital spaceplanes for commercial space tourism. Spacetech represents cutting-edge advancements that drive exploration, enable the future of space travel, and tackle industry challenges for a more sustainable and accessible space ecosystem.


Sports tech refers to the integration of technology and data analysis in various aspects of sports. It encompasses a wide range of technologies and tools that aim to enhance athletic performance, improve training methodologies, and provide a more immersive experience for both athletes and fans. For instance, wearable devices are utilized to track performance metrics, virtual and augmented reality are employed for training purposes, data analytics and machine learning are used to analyze game footage and statistics, and specialized equipment is designed to prevent injuries. These advancements in sports tech are revolutionizing the way athletes train, improving their performance, and creating an engaging environment for fans.

Supply Chain Tech


Therapeutics is a medical field that aims to treat and care for diseases and disorders, with the goal of alleviating symptoms, curing illnesses, or improving a patient's overall health and well-being. It includes various approaches, such as medical treatments, medications, surgical procedures, physical therapy, and lifestyle interventions. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics focuses specifically on the use of medications and drugs in medical treatment. Overall, therapeutics involves a wide range of strategies and interventions used by healthcare professionals to prevent, manage, and treat illnesses, ultimately promoting the health and recovery of patients. 

Threat Intelligence


Travel Tech: 

Travel technology, also known as travel tech, refers to the use of technology and digital innovation in the travel industry. Its purpose is to make travel planning, booking, and management easier and more efficient. It encompasses a wide range of technologies, including online travel agencies, virtual tours, and smart luggage systems. Travel tech utilizes emerging technologies like artificial intelligence, big data analytics, and Internet of Things to optimize travel processes and enhance customer experiences. The ultimate goal is to streamline every aspect of the travel experience, making it easier, more efficient, and enjoyable for consumers.

UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)

Vulnerability Management

Virtual Reality: 

Virtual reality (VR) is a computer-generated simulation that immerses users in a virtual environment. VR typically involves the use of head-mounted displays (HMDs) or VR goggles to provide a visual and auditory experience. It incorporates tracking systems, input devices, and computer software to track the user's movement and allow interaction with the virtual surroundings. VR has various applications in industries such as gaming, entertainment, training, architecture, design, tourism and military applications. It enhances entertainment, creates immersive experiences, and allows for realistic simulations with fewer resources and increased safety and accessibility. VR has many applications and is continually being used in new industries.

Web Security


Web3, or Web 3.0, is the third generation of the World Wide Web. Unlike its predecessors, Web 1.0 and Web 2.0, Web3 is designed to be decentralized and open to everyone. It is based on blockchain technology and Semantic Web advancements, which allow for meaningful connections between data on the web. In a Web3 society, there are no centralized organizations, and individuals own their own data. Transactions are publicly recorded on blockchains that are accessible to everyone. 


In technology, wearables refer to electronic devices that are designed to be worn on the body, typically as an accessory or clothing item. They are equipped with various sensors, processors, and connectivity features that can collect data, perform computational tasks, and communicate with other devices. Wearable technologies are often used to monitor health, provide entertainment, or support navigation and communication, and usually take form as smart glasses, smartwatches and fitness trackers, wearable cameras, VR headsets, and more. Benefits of wearables include greater convenience and accessibility, increased connectivity and communication, and real time personalized feedback based on the user’s data.


Physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and intellectual wellness are the five major dimensions of personal health. It is critical that none of these aspects be overlooked in order to be termed "well." Wellness technologies encompass a wide range of tools, equipment, and software applications that promote the user's overall health and well-being. Fitness trackers, meditation applications, telemedicine, virtual care and online wellness coaching platforms, and nutrition apps are all examples of wellness technology. Wearable technology, virtual reality, big data analytics, and other technological applications are used in these services to encourage a balanced and healthy lifestyle for all users.