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With our Advance Search option, you can search by name, location, industry and technology sectors. If you need to zero in on a specific buzzword, keyword or tag, IVC can help make your search easy and efficient. IVC gives you the precise definition of technology keywords throughout our database. Use the Advanced Search engine's key word search for easy and efficient searches and results.
Agritech, Agrotech, Agro Technology or Agricultural Technology, refers to the application of technology and innovation in the agricultural sector. AgriTech encompasses a wide range of technologies, including automation, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, big data analytics, and genetic engineering. These technologies are used in drones, robots, sensors, software systems, and crops to support functions such as field surveying and crop health monitoring, picking crops more efficiently and accurately, and reducing waste of resources like water and soil. Ultimately, the goal of AgriTech is to increase farm yields, reduce costs of production, improve the sustainability of farming, and increase the resilience of crops.
AgriBiotech, Agricultural Biotechnology, Genetically engineered plants, Detoxify pollutants, Absorb pollutants, Biotechnology, Antibiotic production, Genomics, Genetic crop modification, Breeding, Biological pest control, Microbial enzyme engineering, Precision agriculture, Bioremediation, Bioenergy, Biochemicals, Industrial crops, Biofuels, Pharmaceuticals, Specialty chemicals, Biopesticides, Fertilizers, Pesticides, Biomaterials, Bioconversion, Cosmetics, Crop Protection, Fungicides, Fuels, Automation, Robotics, Agricultural drones, Efficiency, Labor costs, Autonomous tractors, Robotic milking machines, Fruit and vegetable picking robots, Smart Farming, Information and communications technologies, Sensors, Robots, Drones, Software, Soil conditions, Water use, Micro-climate conditions, Crop growth, Yield, Irrigation, Fertigation, Precision Agriculture, Novel Farming, Indoor farming, Vertical Farming, Big Data/Analytics, AI, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Farm Management Software, Data-based technologies, IoT, AgriFood, AgriFood technology, Aquaculture, Livestock and dairy farming, Alternative proteins, Feeding solutions, Dairy production technologies, Food additives, Food safety, Quality control systems, Fermentation methods, Post-harvest technologies.
AgriBiotech or Agricultural Biotechnology are tools altering living organisms to make new products, improve plants/animals or develop microbes for use. It provides farmers with tools to make production cheaper and simpler. Genetically engineered plants help detoxify pollutants or absorb pollutants from soil. Biotechnology helps make antibiotic production more efficient. Benefits include making farming safer, reducing pesticide use, increasing quality and profit.
Key Industries & Verticals: Genomics, Genetic crop modification, Breeding, Biological pest control, Microbial enzyme engineering, Precision agriculture, Bioremediation.
AgriFood refers to the application of technology to improve and optimize the production, distribution and quality of food from agricultural sources. It involves using innovation and data across the entire food value chain from farm to fork. The goal of AgriFood technology is to make agriculture and food systems more efficient, sustainable, and safe. This can help ensure sufficient and nutritious food for a growing population.
Key Industries & Verticals: Aquaculture and ocean farming to produce seafood. Livestock and dairy farming using technological tools and automation. Alternative proteins like cultivated and plant-based meat and dairy. Feeding solutions and additives for livestock and poultry. Dairy production technologies. Food additives and ingredients production. Apiculture or beekeeping technologies. Functional foods and nutraceuticals. Food safety and quality control systems. Fermentation methods and technologies. Post-harvest technologies for food packaging, preservation, and protection.
Machinery and robotics that assist with agriculture tasks and processes.
Key Industries & Verticals: Robotic and automated systems for tasks like harvesting crops, grading produce, sorting seeds, crop spraying, soil monitoring. Agricultural drones for surveying fields, mapping, crop monitoring, post-harvest, logistics & supply chain. The goals of automation and robotics in agriculture are to Increase efficiency, improve yields and reduce labor costs. Examples of automation and robotics may include: Autonomous tractors that can plow and plant fields with GPS guidance. Robotic milking machines that milk cows hands-free. Fruit and vegetable picking robots that use computer vision and artificial intelligence.
Bioenergy is a form of renewable energy that is derived from recently living organic materials known as biomass, which can be used to produce transportation fuels, heat, electricity, and products.
Biochemicals: Industrial crops are grown to produce goods for manufacturing. Rather than food and feed, they supply raw materials for making biofuels, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. Biochemicals such as the production of biopesticides, are an alternative to conventional pesticides. Biochemical biopesticides are compounds of natural origin possessing active ingredients that control pests by mechanisms that are non-toxic to the target pest, the environment, and humans.
Fertilizers, pesticides, or other biomaterials are used by farmers to achieve higher crop yields, improve crop quality, endure diseases, and provide longer shelf life
Key Industries & Verticals: Agro-chemicals, Biochemicals, Biological Control: E.g. the use of Pathogenic Fungi to kill pests. Biomaterials, Bioconversion, Bioenergy, Cosmetics, Crop Protection, Fertilizers, Fungicides, Fuels, Pharmaceuticals, Pesticides.
Smart farming refers to the use of information and communications technologies to optimize agricultural production processes. It involves the use of sensors, robots, drones and software to collect data that is then analyzed to inform decisions that improve efficiency, reduce costs and minimize environmental impact. Smart farming technologies monitor key parameters such as soil conditions, water use, micro-climate conditions and crop growth and yield and help identify problems that would otherwise go unnoticed. By analyzing the data gathered through these technologies, farmers can make better decisions regarding crop management, irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide application and harvest planning. Overall, smart farming aims to achieve more sustainable agriculture through more precise, targeted and timely interventions based on real-time information and analytics.
Key Industries & Verticals: Irrigation, Fertigation, Precision Agriculture, Novel Farming (innovative systems for growing plants like hydroponics or new types of greenhouses), Indoor farming, Vertical Farming. Data-based technologies making use of Big Data/Analytics, AI, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Farm Management Software etc. (predictive analytics of diseased crops and software to automate soil composition) to help farmers make better decisions on daily or the automation of farm work using IoT.
Short for Clean Technology, commonly used for products, services and processes designed to reduce or eliminate negative ecological impact and improve the productive and responsible use of natural resources. In this sector you will find companies developing eco-friendly technologies, technologies promoting efficiency and economy in the use of resources, recycling technologies and recyclable materials and technologies for the prevention and treatment of pollution.
Eco, Recycling, Waste, Treatment, Conservation, Purification, Control, Clean, Aqua, Farm, Recover, Pollution, Emission, GHG, Air, Quality
Refers to technologies that promote the use of alternative and renewable energy sources (wind, solar, geothermal, hydro/marine and biofuels), energy storage technologies and devices (fuel cells, advanced batteries and hybrid systems), as well as technologies promoting efficient and economic uses of energy (for lighting, climate controlled environments, conversion etc.) and technologies addressing the needs of the energy utilities and infrastructures sectors.
This subsector refers in generals to a myriad of eco-friendly technologies and processes including technologies for the treatment of solid waste and recycling, various eco-monitoring technologies and emission control, and technologies for pollution prevention or reduction.
This term is used to refer to technologies for the production of advanced chemical and bio materials, as well as technologies promoting the economical use of raw materials and recycled or recovered materials.
Please Note: Nano materials will be included under this category only if developed by a company specializing in advanced materials. Other Nano tech materials will be found under Miscellaneous Technologies/ Nanotechnology.
A special category is dedicated to water-related technologies including water treatment & purification (desalination, filtration, UV treatment and wastewater treatment), water conservation and efficiency (water-efficient products, leakage control, and low-evaporation reservoirs), water infrastructures and supply (flow control, measurement & analysis, extreme conditions supply and water security & pollution prevention) and irrigation (despite some categorizations that view irrigation as agro technology).
The Communications sector includes technologies that are targeted at the private and public telecommunications markets. It may be easier to define as what it does NOT include, such as Internet technologies, communications-related semiconductors and new media – all to be found under different sectors in the database. The technologies that ARE included are mainly related to communications infrastructures on the one hand and specific applications and devices on the other.
FTTx, xDSL, CATV, IPTV, MPEG, Router, Switch, Cable, LAN, WAN, WLAN, Wi-Fi, 802.11, 802.16, DSL, SOHO, WiFi, WiMax, LTE, OFDM, Ethernet, Radio, TV, Telecom, Telco, WLAN, GSM, TDMA, CDMA, VAS, Antenna, Wireless, Cellular, PDA, Operator, Modem, IP, RF, Telephony, Phone, Television, Carrier, ITU, SIP, Protocol, GPS, SDH, SONET, Fiber, PON.
An access network is that part of a communications network which connects subscribers, mostly homes and businesses, to their immediate service provider (also referred to as The Last Mile). It is contrasted with the core network, which is the central part of the telecom network. Relevant technologies which enable the access network a wider bandwidth are: xDSL, FTTx (Fiber-To-The-X), PON (Passive Optical Network), BWA (Broadband Wireless Access).
Dedicated to Television, Video and Audio Broadcasting Technologies. Amongst them are CATV (Cable TV - a system of providing television to consumers via RF signals transmitted to televisions through fixed optical fibers or coaxial cables), IPTV (Internet Protocol Television - a system where a digital television service is delivered using Internet Protocol), ITV (Internet television - a television distributed through the Internet). Other relevant keywords: HDTV, VOD, Video and Audio Compression (MPEG), streaming and various satellite technologies.
An enterprise network connects all the isolated departmental or workgroup networks into an intra-company network, with the potential for allowing all computer users in a company to access any data or computing resource. It provides interoperability among autonomous and heterogeneous systems, integration and management of disparate networks. The enterprise network has the eventual goal of reducing the number of communication protocols in use. Common technologies: LAN, WLAN, VPN, Ethernet.
Home network is defined as two or more computers interconnected to form a local area network (LAN) within the home (wired or wireless). It allows computer owners to interconnect multiple computers so that each can share files, programs, printers, other peripheral devices, and Internet access with other computers, reducing the need for redundant equipment. The advanced home network provides home automation, i.e. controls for the home ambient environment, security systems, household appliances etc. This sub-sector also includes SOHO (Small Office/Home Office) Networks.
Refers mostly to applications which are developed for Mobile phones and smartphones. Companies in this sub-sector engage mostly in the development of applications related to one or more of the following: Entertainment, Gaming, Advertisement, M-Commerce, LBS, Mobile web. Applications developed by companies in this sub-sector often use software technologies such as Symbian, BREW, Java, J2ME, and Linux.
Includes companies which develop components (such as antennas, base stations, amplifiers etc.) and technologies which conduct the cellular network infrastructure. Furthermore, it contains companies which develop innovative mobile handsets. Relevant keywords: GSM, CDMA, Wimax, LTE, OFDM, 3G, 4G, HSPA.
Next-Generation Network (NGN) is the term given to describe a telecommunications packet-based network that handles multiple types of traffic (such as voice, data and multimedia). It is the convergence of service provider networks that includes the public switched telephone network (PSTN), the data network (the Internet), and, in some instances, the wireless network as well. This sub-sector also includes Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) – the ability to provide fixed and mobile services with a single phone or personal device, which could switch between networks ad hoc.
Dedicated to networking technologies that rely on optical transmission of digital data as light pulses using fiber optic communications. Optical networks are high-capacity telecommunications networks based on optical technologies and components that provide routing, grooming, and restoration at the wavelength level as well as wavelength-based services.
Companies included in this sub-sector engage in the development of technologies such as lasers, WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing), SDH/SONET (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy/Synchronous optical networking) and products such as fiber-optic cables, amplifiers and optical switches.
Please note that technologies such as PON and FTTx can be founded under the "Broadband Access" sub-sector.
Telecom applications refer mostly to software either embedded into a system or separately installed on a main computer, for the control, diagnostics and performance analyses of all telecom (mainly networking) hardware. The relevant applications provide different services, such as Network or traffic Management and Optimization, QoS (Quality of Service). OSS/BSS (Operations Support Systems / Business Support Systems), Billing, Roaming, CRM (Customer Relationship Management) and other Value Added Services (VAS). Main users of telecom applications are ISPs (Internet Service Providers), telecom carriers and service providers.
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over the Internet or other packet-switched networks. IP telephony describes telephony devices that use IP as the native transport for voice and call signalling. VoIP & IP Telephony are important for Computer telephony integration (CTI), a technology that allows interactions on a telephone and a computer to be integrated or coordinated. Other technological keywords might be H.323 - a set of standards from the ITU-T, which defines a set of protocols to provide audio and visual communication over an IP network, and SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).
Applications developed for wireless networks or PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant). Common usages of these applications are: business - rugged PDAs (EDA - Enterprise Digital Assistants) used for Mobile Workforce and Fleet Management; supply chain management or facilities maintenance and management such as remote monitoring and Telemetry. RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) applications, Navigation and LBS (Location Based Services) combining GPS. Other relevant wireless technologies are Wi-Fi and Wlan (802.11).
Refers to telecommunications networks where interconnections between nodes are implemented without the use of wires. Relevant technologies include WLAN, Wi-Fi, WiMAX (802.16), RF, Microwave and Bluetooth. This subsector includes defense and military wireless networks and equipment as well.
To be updated soon...
This sector groups together various software sub-sectors, emphasizing the aspect of Information Technology (IT) systems for the Enterprise market. Companies developing software products for enterprises and for business end-users can be found here, as well as some companies developing software for the home market, including various software components for use in PCs – either by an individual end user, or by a business end-user. It should be noted however that the sector does not encompass all companies where software is the core technology, since companies with software targeted at specific market niches are sometimes more relevant for other Sectors. Such companies may be found under, Life Sciences/Healthcare IT, Communications/Telecom Applications and Semiconductors/Manufacturing Equipment & EDA. Also, embedded software technologies and products are more likely to be found by the products’ target market or function, in Cleantech, Communications, Semiconductors, Life Sciences and Miscellaneous Technologies.
CAD, CAM, ERP, CRM, BI, Cloud, Grid
Analytics are defined as the extensive use of data, statistical and quantitative analysis, explanatory and predictive modeling, and fact-based decision-making. Business Analytics is used to describe specific enterprise software that gathers and interprets data in order to make better business decisions and to optimize business processes. In some cases the decision making process is automated. Analytics (in addition to data access and reporting) represents a subset of business intelligence (BI) software. Companies developing relevant technologies such as business intelligence and financial software are included in this sub-sector.
Mostly refers to a set of software tools for creating other IT products, like software development tools or software used for analysis and quality assurance in the programming of other software systems. It may also refer to software tools used in the design of non-software products and automated manufacturing systems (CAD, CAM).
Any set of software written for functions performed by an enterprise, from management down to production. These include ERP systems and ERP components such as manufacturing, supply chain management, financials, CRM, human resources, logistics and knowledge management. Also relevant are systems and services offered by the enterprises to internal users, using Intranet or Internet, sometimes referred to as Enterprise 2.0, for making use of concepts originally designed by Web 2.0 companies.
This term is used to define IT system infrastructures on the enterprise level such as servers, storage, network management systems, data warehouses and GRID systems. They are generally the software components managing the enterprise network of computers, linking the hardware and software used by the company into a seamless system.
E-Learning includes companies offering platforms and content (including digital media formats), which enable web users to educate themselves on different subjects without human interaction and tutoring. E-Learning sites include those offering materials in academic fields (student material) and those offering general knowledge and education, such as cooking or stock trading.
Electronic (e) commerce refers generally to web sites dedicated to commerce via the Internet but also to the complete set of processes that support commercial business activities on a network. However, not every online shop is relevant to the purposes of this database, but rather the companies developing the technologies behind the online shelves, such as electronic money transfers, billing, shopping comparison and recommendation engines, supply chain management, e-marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), automated inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems.
To be updated soon...
Security software products either embedded in the computer or available as a software package aimed at protecting computers from viruses, hackers and unauthorized access to data stored in these computers. These include anti-virus software, firewalls, access authorization systems, encryption coders and de-coders and intrusion-detection systems. Also included in this Sub-Sector are non-software security and homeland security technologies.
Applies to software technologies or products not relevant to any of the other sub-sectors including GIS, publishing software, logistics, educational software, graphic software and more.
Life Sciences is a general term used to refer to biological technologies, medical technologies and healthcare-related technologies. Companies developing products for the healthcare market can be found in this sector, along with companies performing biological and genetic research, and companies developing technologies, tools and materials used in such research.
Biotechnology companies use biology to create products based on technological developments involving living systems and organisms. Bioinformatics, biologicals, industrial life science, diagnostics and therapeutics companies, with biological research at core are included.
The terms bioinformatics and computational biology are often used interchangeably. However bioinformatics more properly refers to the creation and advancement of algorithms, computational and statistical techniques, and theory to solve formal and practical problems inspired from the management and analysis of biological data. Relevant research in the field include sequence alignment, gene finding, genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, prediction of gene expression and protein-protein interactions, and the modeling of evolution. However, applied research usually focuses on DNA sequencing, and the study of gene regulation using data from microarrays or mass spectrometry.
Biologics or Biological science classifies and describes the various forms of organisms, how organisms function, how species come into existence, and interact with each other and with the environment. The science of biology as a whole includes such fields as botany, zoology, entomology, ecology, evolution and more. However, in the context of applied research and development, the term is generally used to refer mostly to companies active in the fields of microbiology, cellular biology and genetics.
Diagnostics using a biochemical process for medical diagnosis - the process of identifying a medical condition or disease by its signs, symptoms, and from the results of various procedures such as blood or urine tests. Included in this sub-sector are technologies specifically targeted at the diagnosis of a physical situation or a disease such as biopsies and various biochemical tests.
Industrial - in the case of Life Sciences this term is used to refer to industrial and consumer goods manufactured holly or in part from renewable biomass (plant based resources) applied to produce lubricants, animal feed, polymers, solvents, emulsifiers as well as natural fiber composite materials.
Therapeutics is the field of the various remedies that can be used to treat disease and promote health. The drug companies that use biological technologies and products in the process of pharmaceutical development belong to biotechnology field.
Digital health uses digital technologies to promote health, healthcare, living, and patient treatment to enhance the efficiency of healthcare delivery turning medicine more personalized and precise.
Health information technology is any software used by healthcare services which allows comprehensive management of medical information and its secure exchange between healthcare consumers and providers. This includes local systems used by hospitals or healthcare providers, as well as vertical systems used by HMOs and care providers to exchange information about patients and clients.
Telemedicine refers to any medical situation where a patient and healthcare provider (or even two healthcare providers) communicate in real time via telephone, teleconference or satellite. These include such scenarios as medical consultation via phone or video-conferencing, patient monitoring using tele-otoscopes, tele-stethoscopes and halters, and even robotic surgery in remote or hard-to-access locations, including space.
This term is used to refer to an instrument, apparatus, appliance or other article, used on human beings for the diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment or alleviation of disease, injury or handicap. It is also used for items with medical purposes such as investigation, replacement or modification of the anatomy (like replacement joints) or of a physiological process (like heart defibrillators and stents). Medical devices may be as simple as a plastic syringe or as complex as an MRI system or a robotic surgical arm. Complex medical device systems may or may not include embedded software and may be used externally (ultrasound), internally (endoscope) or both (hearing aids). Due to the width of this sector, it is recommended to use medical or technical key words when searching a medical devices company.
Diagnostics is used to refer to a device used for medical diagnosis - the process of identifying a medical condition or disease by its signs, symptoms, and from the results of various procedures such as blood or urine tests. Included in this sub-sector are technologies specifically targeted at the diagnosis of a physical situation or a disease such as EKG, EEG, medical imaging.
Pharmaceutical companies research, develop, and market medicines made primarily from artificial sources, using chemical materials. It is the field of the various remedies that can be used to treat disease and promote health. Drug companies of all kinds, including generics and medical Cannabis development are included in this sub-sector.
Phases in Life Science Product development consist of discovery, followed by pre-clinical trials (3-6 years on average) and three Clinical Trial Phases (6-7 years on average), which lead to regulatory approval certification. Clinical trial phases are based on human volunteer participation and progress by number of participants:
Phase I – Purpose: Safety and dosage tested on 20-100 participants
Phase II – Purpose: Efficacy and side effects tested on several hundred participants
Phase III – Purpose: Efficacy and monitoring of adverse reactions tested on up to several thousand participants
FDA Approved - a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within USA provided by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA), a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
CE Approved - a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA). The CE marking is also found on products sold outside the EEA that are manufactured in, or designed to be sold in, the EEA.
Semiconductors devices are components that provide the memory, logic and intelligence functions in electronic systems. In this sector there are companies that develop semiconductors for various industries (fabless companies), manufacturer of chips (fabrication companies), develop the equipment for manufacturing the chips and develop software for the developers of the chips.
ICs, chipsets, SoC (System-on-Chip), ASSP, ASIC, SIP (Semiconductor Intellectual property), DSP (Digital Signal Processor), FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), RFID, metrology, wafer, lithography, dicing, doping, dopants.
Companies that develop semiconductor devices for the wireless communication industry (GSM, WiMAX, WLAN, Wi-Fi, WPAN), such as cellular handsets, notebook computers and Navigation Devices.
Companies that develop semiconductor devices for the wireline communication industry (such as Telephone, cable TV and ADSL) and companies that develop the devices that distribute high speed IP data throughout the home over existing wires (home networking).
Companies that develop semiconductor devices for network processors such as routers and switches.
Companies that develop semiconductor devices for video, image and audio component – processors and sensors - that are in use in many applications such as entertainment products, homeland security systems, automotive products and communication companies.
Companies that develop the equipment for the manufacturing process of chips such as lithography, dicing and metrology (Manufacturing Equipment) and companies that create the designing tools for developing semiconductors devices (Electronic Design Automation - EDA Tools).
Companies that manufacture chips (Fabrication Companies) and companies that develop processes that inspect semiconductor device performance (Testing).
Companies that develop semiconductor devices for memory and storage solutions such as flash memory cards and USB drives.
Companies that develop semiconductor devices that process data and control the execution of program instructions in computers and electronic devices (Processors), and companies that develop RFID cards – an identification system that can read or write data content using a specified radio frequency (RFID) – used for product tagging and logistics.
Companies that develop semiconductor devices that control security-related processes such as: authentication, encryption/decryption, secure boot, copy protection and digital rights management (DRM).
Companies that develop semiconductor devices for multiple sub sectors, or companies that develop products that are not included in the above sub sectors such as power, DSP and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).
Other technologies not specified in Sectors above. These include: defense and homeland security technologies, hardware, industrial technologies, nanotechnologies and various other technologies that are not better described by one of our more defines sectors and sub sectors.
The Defense & Military sub sector if dedicated to companies which develop military equipment and systems for all fields - navy, air and ground forces. It also includes companies developing technologies in fields such as robotics, rugged computers and electronic warfare (EW). The technologies developed by companies in this sub sector are mostly used by military units, armed forces and law enforcement agencies.
Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes programs and orders within the hardware. Hardware not only refers to personal computers or servers, but rather to any electronic device or component embedded in advanced systems such as automobiles, microwave ovens, electrocardiograph machines, compact disc players, and other devices. Other examples include Image, video and audio output devices (monitors, displays, stereos, speakers, headsets etc.), and computer peripherals like printers, keyboards, scanners and mouse devices.
Industrial Technology includes wide-ranging subject matter and could be viewed as an amalgamation of industrial engineering. This sector includes companies developing technologies and products for various industrial markets such as electrical, engineering, electromechanical and mechanical equipment. Examples include digital printing equipment, electric generators and transformers, automotive technologies, robotics and more. A manufacturer involved in technologies that are a mix of various other sectors also falls under this category. The sector is also often used to refer to heavy industry and related technologies.
Nanoscale (one billionth of a meter) materials offer unique and commercially useful electrical, optical and mechanical properties due to their size, shape, and composition. This opens up new possibilities for applications in aerospace, automotive, biomedical, microelectronics, semiconductors, pharmaceutical, anti-friction coatings, photocatalysts, energy storage and other fields. Nanotechnologies today lies in the realm between the possible now (nano chemicals for example) and the futuristic (medical nanobots, nanosatellites), and so is on the cutting edge of applicative technologies and research. Though many research projects in nanotechnology are conducted in Israel, only few companies make it from concept to design to product. Only those companies are included in this sub-sector.
The Miscellaneous sub-sector includes companies that may not be categorized under any of the other sectors or sub-sectors, or may be hard to define altogether, since they are dealing with unique or esoteric technologies and niche markets.